- Type of government and parliament
- What is the State Duma?
- Why does the State Duma exist?
- Voting in the State Duma
- Convening the State Duma
- Last convocation
- Turnout in the last election
- Preliminary results
- Election Results September 18, 2016
- The activities of the State Duma of the new convocation
Parliament is the main legislative institution of any modern democratic state. It is here that laws are written and adopted by voting, constitutions are established and amendments are made to them. In Russia, the State Duma is the lower house of parliament. And in this publication we will talk about the functions and powers of this authority. In addition, we will talk about the features of the formation of its composition and how candidates are elected to the State Duma.
Type of government and parliament
Parliament can influence both the state’s foreign policy and internal policy; everything depends on the role of the president. Most Western countries are parliamentary republics, that is, it is the parliament that decides everything, while the Russian Federation is a mixed-type republic. The United States, by the way, is a presidential republic. The last word is always with the president.
So, what is the name of the parliament in Russia? Historically, legislators have different names. This includes the Polish Sejm, and the Spanish Cortes, and all this is, in fact, a parliament. Usually it is bicameral, while the lower house accepts and prescribes the law, and the upper chamber either rejects it or asserts it, without having the right to make changes. This practice has remained since the time of the monarchy, confirming its effectiveness.
What is the State Duma?
And so we came close to the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The State Duma is not yet a parliament, in principle, our parliament is the Federal Assembly. It is bicameral, and the algorithm of the action of the Federal Assembly is described in detail in Chapter 5 of the Constitution. In turn, the State Duma - this is precisely the lower, most important and responsible branch of power in our state. It is in the State Duma that all laws are adopted that determine the life of ordinary citizens in the state and even the country's budget for the next year.
How is the voting in the State Duma, how are candidates going to the polls and what are they doing all the time to convene parliament? We will try to answer these questions now.
Why does the State Duma exist?
Since the State Duma is actually the main legislative body in the country, it is the legislative activity that is the main task of the deputies of the lower house of parliament of the Russian Federation. The laws that are submitted for consideration and voting can be completely different: from small sectors of the economy and related tax policy to, for example, reforming education or medicine on a large scale. The main thing is that the new petty law should be within the limits allowed by the Constitution, and should not contradict its basic provisions. Otherwise, such a law will be illegitimate, even if the deputies vote for it and it will be passed by both chambers of the Federal Assembly.
Voting in the State Duma
Voting in the State Duma is regulated by the 10th article of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. What draft laws fall into the upper house of parliament is determined by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. Bills that are submitted for discussion should go through a special constitutional commission to determine the degree of compliance with the country's main legal act. The procedure is performed using electronic equipment. After passing the bill to a vote, its author can speak from the podium about his opinion about the law, its meaning and usefulness. Opponents can also speak about the negative aspects of the draft law, after which, for a set time, all those present must choose “for”, “against” or “abstain” in relation to this law. The percentage is immediately determined and the result is whether the bill goes on to the vote to the upper chamber of the Federal Assembly or not. The laws of the State Duma form the "legal body" of the country. It is worth noting that the vote can be secret or open, but in most cases it is open. When the State Duma passed the law, it goes to the vote in the upper house of the Federal Assembly.
Convening the State Duma
Each election determines the composition of the State Duma for the next five years, thereby forming the next convocation. Any democratic state limits the time of work of its institutions, because during one convocation the opinion of the people and civil society - the receptacles of the main political will in the country - could change dramatically. Theoretically, deputies are reflections of certain groups of people who voted for one or another deputy, and he is obliged to protect precisely their rights. For five years, the deputy reflects the will of the people, and if he did it badly and did not meet the requirements of voters, they will vote for another candidate. In the debates between various groups of the population, which are represented by political parties and deputies, there is a process of parliamentary discussion, a kind of core of democracy. Therefore, it is considered that the State Duma is the main body of parliamentarism in our country.
It's no secret that recently, on September 18, 2016, regular elections to the State Duma were held. Although the new political forces did not bring elections to parliament, they significantly changed the alignment of forces in the supreme legislative body of the country, having strengthened the power of the ruling party United Russia.
Turnout in the last election
In general, it is worth noting that the turnout in these elections was rather low, only 50 percent of the population expressed a desire to go and exercise their right to participate in the political life of the state. And although even a more massive turnout would hardly radically change the color of the next convocation, as pro-Western and opposition media journalists often like to talk about, this indicates a cooling of Russian interest in politics and, possibly, even disappointment.
It is worth saying that about what the results of the elections to the State Duma will be, it was already known at the end of the voting day. The primary election to the State Duma, or primaries, is, in essence, an internal party process of determining the number of candidates and their distribution among constituencies, which ended in the summer. To determine which of the candidates will take part in the main elections, could any of the citizens of the Russian Federation who have reached the age of majority. Since May of this year, primaries were held in the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, United Russia, PARNAS, and the Green Alliance. Honestly, it was a more populist step, since the leadership of the parties predetermined the tactics and strategy of the political struggle, and the election results that were too contradictory to this tactic were simply canceled some time after the elections. On the other hand, popular opinion forced politicians to significantly correct their own course, making amendments to popular opinion on the eve of the forthcoming large-scale elections to the State Duma.
Election Results September 18, 2016
As a result, as a result of the elections, the total 450 seats in the State Duma were distributed as follows:
- United Russia received only 28, 527, 828 votes, or 54.2 percent, and 343 seats in the State Duma. This is significantly more than the result of United Russia in 2011.
- The Communist Party of the Russian Federation receives 7, 019, 752 votes, which is 13.34 percent of the vote and 42 seats in parliament. Compared with previous elections, this result is worse.
- LDPR. Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky’s party won 6, 917, 063 votes, almost like Communist Gennady Zyuganov, or 13.14 percent, and 39 seats in the State Duma.
- The last of the political forces that has overcome the 5 percent barrier is the party "Fair Russia". She received a total of 3, 275, 053 votes, or 6.22 percent, and 22 deputy seats.
The activities of the State Duma of the new convocation
The State Duma of the Federal Assembly, which will be formed according to the results of the elections of September 18, 2016, has the name of the State Duma of the seventh convocation. Unlike the previous convocations of the government party United Russia, which is headed by Dmitry Medvedev, there is no need to join parliamentary coalitions to promote its course, as in previous convocations. Then several parties had to unite in one coalition for the passage of a bill, maintain a single course and vote for each other’s proposals. At the same time, of course, it was impossible to avoid compromises between political forces within the same coalition, so the course itself was greatly simplified. Now, the leadership of "United Russia" will be much easier.