- The relevance of the issue raised in the report
- Myasishchev Vladimir Mikhailovich. Carier start
- Saving arrest
- Aviation industry. Teaching work
- From strategic bombers to spacecraft
- The last project of the scientist
- Suborbital plane Myasishchev. Engine
- More about the engine
- The project, the fallen victim of schemers
- How to understand the statement center Khrunicheva?
Recently, the mass media published a laconic message about the report of Vladimir Denisov, an employee of the Russian scientific and industrial space center. It sounded the idea of building a spacecraft of a monoblock design, capable of making flights to the Moon or Mars, fly around Venus.
The spacecraft, according to the plan, will move in the gravitational field of the planets using a combined nuclear propulsion system. It is planned to fly in orbit at the expense of "electric propulsion engines" powered by a nuclear power plant on board.
The speaker also mentioned that the basis for such a project has already been developed by Russian scientists, in particular Vladimir Myasishchev. At the same time, the speaker tactfully kept silent about the military rank of the named person.
He was a major general engineer.
The relevance of the issue raised in the report
Vladimir Denisov, announcing a possible research topic, clearly hinted at the MG-19 plane Myasishchev MG-19 brought to the stage of working drawings, which was being developed in the 1970s.
It was a promising model. In the case of its creation, which was planned by the end of the 80s, the USSR would have been much ahead of the USA in space, having significantly “outplayed” the American program “Space Shuttle”. The M-19 project was not completed, however, it became a legend for two generations of Soviet space engineers.
From the standpoint of today, the program designed by Myasishchev was voluntarily closed in the 1980s. It must be admitted: the plane of the Soviet aircraft designer Vladimir Myasishchev MG-19 was not the only victim. Provisional managers then broke down all military science, requiring allocations and giving results only after years, while hiding behind demagogy.
According to modern calculations, a dozen Myasishchev planes would have provided an excess of cargo through the Earth-Space traffic for the period until the end of the 21st century. With the help of these aircraft, satellite systems and orbital stations would be much cheaper and larger-scale. The combat capabilities of space systems increased by an order of magnitude.
The universal project - the aircraft Myasishchev MG-19 - simultaneously achieved four scientific goals, creating:
- atomic supersonic aircraft;
- cryogenic hypersonic aircraft;
- aerospace plane;
- spacecraft driven by a nuclear reactor.
At the same time, replacing the MG-19 Soviet project "Buran-2" pursued only one of these tasks: the design of an aerospace plane. Simply put, it was just an adequate response to the American program "Space Shuttle", nothing more.
Vladimir Mikhailovich, before taking up the space program, glorified his name in the field of aviation technology, creating heavy supersonic bombers. This article is dedicated to his biographies and technical studies.
Myasishchev Vladimir Mikhailovich. Carier start
This man’s life was rich. Myasishchev enjoyed authority with colleagues. He was respected by S. Korolev, a close friendship between two distinguished aircraft engineers. His ideas overtook time, and the development has always been super-actual. Suffice it to mention that Myasishchev's aircraft set 19 world records.
The future General Designer of the OKB-23 was born in 1902, in the family of a wealthy merchant in the Tula province. Interest in aviation arose in childhood, when a detachment of red pilots landed in his hometown of Efremov. The boy touched their planes with his hands and “fell ill” with them for life.
He graduated from Myasishchev MVTU them. Bauman at the age of 25 and at the same time married to Elena Spendiarova, the daughter of an Armenian composer.
After graduating for twelve years, he worked at the Tupolev Design Bureau. He studied the subtleties of design with his head Petlyakov V. M. Vladimir Myasishchev. Aircraft "Maxim Gorky", ANT-20, TB-3 were the fruit of the work of the engineering team, where the hero of this article gained experience.
Vladimir Mikhailovich stood out among his colleagues with fundamental physical and mathematical knowledge. In 1934, he supervised the creation of the ANT-41 bomber-torpedo bomber, being the head of the TsAGI brigade.
Since 1937, Myasishchev established the Li-2 series production as the chief designer of the plant number 84 (Khimki). This was the recognition in him of the production worker-practice.
Difficult for the army were the times when they repressed its entire top. To the credit of individual workers of the NKVD, the "brains of the Armed Forces" tried to save. Perhaps that is why in 1938, acting on the advance of the breeders of Beria, the leading aviation engineers were arrested, forced to sign a confession about sabotage, tried and sent to serve their sentences in the prison design bureau No. 23.
Once there, Myasishchev was surprised to see familiar faces: his mentor Petlyakov, Tupolev, Korolev, who had been arrested earlier, and another dozen other aviation specialists. They not only worked together, but also lived in the same room.
However, the NKVD has never been a charitable organization. Vladimir Mikhaylovich had a 10-year prison sentence and property confiscation in his passive. In an asset - the saved life, working capacity, talent, allowing in the future to be rehabilitated.
The designer was a good family man. Hope helped him return to his family again to survive the trials. As he recalled, only thanks to his wife’s letters did he not break.
Aviation industry. Teaching work
The aircraft designer understood that creativity and non-standard were required of him. The project of an innovative long-range bomber in 1939 was developed by Myasishchev. Soviet-made airplanes, his predecessors, are a whole generation behind him. Vladimir Mikhailovich introduced a whole range of new products: remotely controlled machine gun and cannon equipment, a thin wing and built-in tanks, a chassis with one drive wheel. In 1940, the aircraft designer was released early.
Since 1943, Vladimir Mikhailovich after the death of his predecessor, headed the Kazan Petlyakov Design Bureau. Under his leadership, the PE-2I bomber was produced, superior in performance to its German counterparts.
In 1945, his project to create a four-engine bomber was recognized as unpromising and the development was closed. From 1946 to 1951 Myasishchev works as a dean of the faculty for the construction of aircraft TsAGI. He purposefully deepens his knowledge. He, Major-General-engineer, is conferred the title of professor.
From strategic bombers to spacecraft
Myasishchev was fundamentally disagreeing with the fact that in 1946 he was "kicked out of applied aviation" because of the futility of the development. As a professor, he was able to fundamentally prove the loyalty of his research, which he outlined in 1950 in a personal letter to Stalin. They believed him. In 1951, the Major General was appointed chief designer to develop a strategic bomber M-4.
The project has been more than successful. Vladimir Mikhailovich created the Soviet strategic bomber, which became the forefather of the whole family of these machines (M-50, M-52, M-53, M-54).
In 1956, for the first time, the designer faced the task of creating a nuclear engine. The engineer-general improved his previous model of intercontinental bomber M-50. With good combat capabilities of the machine, however, fuel consumption was criticized: 500 tons for a one-way flight to the American continent. To the credit of the hero of this article, the engine manufacturer was not his KB.
This disadvantage for launching the aircraft into mass production was critical. The designer decided to fix it in the next model.
The M-60 Myasishchev airplane - a strategic bomber driven by a nuclear reactor - was to become a more advanced intercontinental weapon. However, the project was stopped. The point is not even that the science of that level could not solve the problem of radiation. Just General Secretary Khrushchev decided that for intercontinental attacks there are many more promising ballistic missiles.
In the future, the aircraft designer decided to develop aircraft for space. Since 1956, its design bureau No. 23 was the first in the USSR to work on the creation of a rocket plane, landing in an airplane manner. Considerable research experience had Myasishchev. Space planes, he was ready to develop from "zero", because they are only in very general terms described by theorists. In parallel with domestic scientists, the Americans developed a similar program, the Space Shuttle. The Soviet version of the space shuttle was called the Buran-1.
Vladimir Mikhailovich gradually planned work on the aircraft, which had no analogues. To begin with, his design bureau developed four possible variants of its design:
- winged with low-angle attack angles and hypersonic braking flaps;
- winged with large attack angles and landing planners;
- wingless with rotary descent;
- conical with parachute landing.
To develop approved the design of a triangular type with a flat bottom. Step by step, difficult exploratory work was carried out, but fate prepared another blow to the gifted scientist. The topic was closed. Such a subjective intervention in science could not even foresee Myasishchev: space planes in the USSR were suppressed by rockets. General Secretary Khrushchev, inspired by the success of S. P. Korolev, decided: “We will not draw both programs!” By a decision of the Council of Ministers, the work on the creation of the first Buran was stopped.
The last project of the scientist
Vladimir Mikhailovich was a tough nut to crack: he was repressed, and he became one of the world's leading scientists in the field of astronautics. The topics of his research were forcibly closed twice, but he did not give up. Only one let down the scientist - age. Myasishchev knew that, starting global work, he would not finish it. He once said this to his first deputy: “This project will be my swan song. I will not see the result anymore. However, I can start it in the right direction. ”
The sixty-four-year-old designer, as if dropping forty years, enthusiastically took up the development of the global theme “Cold-2”, the result of which was the project “Suborbital Myasishchev MG-19”. Created a fundamentally new aircraft.
The necessary basic research, design, testing and, finally, the full implementation of the project were planned for about twenty years. Initially, it was planned to work out the technology of cryogenic fuel consumption, then the remaining design work.
Vladimir Mikhailovich created and rallied a professional and creative team to resolve research and development work. The comrade-in-arms of Myasishchev A. D. Tokhunts became the head of the project complex, I. Z. Plyusnin became the chief designer, A. A. Bruk and N. D. Baryshov were appointed leading specialists in the areas.
Suborbital plane Myasishchev. Engine
The unique propulsion system was the hallmark of the 19th model. It turned out to be a stumbling block for many scientists. Some of them considered the technical characteristics of the project fundamentally unattainable. Others thought it impossible to create a nuclear engine that does not threaten radiation to astronauts themselves.
However, the team, managed by the designer, calculated the necessary technical parameters of the engine, thanks to which the plane of Vladimir Myasishchev MG-19 ceased to seem like a fantasy. The combined propulsion system, using the energy of a nuclear reaction, gave him the opportunity not only to master the near-Earth space, but also the near-moon space. The nuclear facility made it possible to use promising types of space weapons: beam, beam, climatic.
The project also resolved the problem of crew irradiation. The radioactive circuit was isolated using a special heat exchanger. On this issue, Vladimir Mikhailovich held a scheduled consultation with the presidents of the Soviet Academy of Sciences Alexandrov, A. P. He highly appreciated the aircraft being created by Vladimir Myasishchev MG-19, making a firm statement that in ten years a serial combined engine with a nuclear installation would be created.
More about the engine
Consider the scheme of operation of the nuclear engine Myasishchev. The working fuel for it is hydrogen, which is fed to the engine. To operate this fluid system using a nuclear reactor, no oxidizer is needed. The fuel that burns in a controlled chain reaction, heats the hydrogen, which turns into a plasma, is ejected through the nozzles under considerable pressure and causes the "space shuttle" to move.
The project, the fallen victim of schemers
Design studies have confirmed the impressive technical capabilities of an aerospace plane. However, the project of Damocles of the closure suddenly hung on a project requiring further five-year study. Minister of Defense Ustinov supported the project implemented by Academician Glushko V.P. “Energiya-Buran” faster. Against the background of the position of the fourth person rated in the USSR, the position of the Minister of Aviation Industry P.V. Dementiev, supporting Myasishchev’s atomic plane, was not decisive. Having studied the documentation, Pyotr Vasilyevich understood that MG-19, if created, would mark the qualitative separation of the Soviet space program, and the Buran project is only a symmetrical response to the Pentagon.
The Minister of the aviation industry for some time trying to delay the implementation of the program of academician Glushko. However, the enterprises under his jurisdiction involved in the creation of space planes were transferred from the Minaviaprom to the Ministry of General Engineering.
So, power intriguers stopped the project, creating a suborbital aircraft of aircraft designer Vladimir Myasishchev MG-19. Vladimir Mikhailovich became the subordinate chief designer of Lozino-Lozinsky V. G. The work on the aerospace plane began to gradually turn off, and after the death of Myasishchev in 1978, its development was closed.
How to understand the statement center Khrunicheva?
Readers, who already have a general idea of what the Myasishchev VM MG-19 aircraft is, can now more clearly present what was implied in a recent statement by a representative of the Russian space agency.
It contains a certain amount of guile. Far from being a pacifist was Major General Myasishchev. The study of deep space declared in the Khrunichev report is in fact today for Russia is not priority No. 1. First, the necessary conditions should arise.
Let us cite the idea expressed last year by the head of the department of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Igor Mitrofanov. He noted that research flights into space will become a reality in about 25 years, when the problem of protecting a ship and crew from space radiation will be resolved.
It is too tempting to use the limitless military capabilities of space. The suborbital aircraft of the Soviet aircraft designer Vladimir Myasishchev significantly reduces the cost of component delivery and installation of space systems. Those can be weapons that hit enemy electrical equipment with an electromagnetic pulse, intercept their missiles with a powerful laser, and remotely controlled lunar-based rocket launchers. The current designers are developing and rather exotic weapons:
- catching asteroids and retargeting them to ground targets.
Thus, if we were able to create the Myasishchev M-19 aircraft today, it would mean only one thing - a new round of the arms race in the already studied near space. After all, a purposeful study of the far complex is predicted by scientists only after two decades.
It is naive to believe that the Khrunichev Center will receive allocations for this project not from the military department.
At one time, USSR Minister of Aviation Industry Dementiev had the imprudence to say at a meeting of aircraft designers that Myasishchev’s projects would be realized when the graves of all their descendants were forgotten.
It seems that he was not mistaken. Today, the development of the seventies, a suborbital plane of Vladimir Myasishchev MG-19, is again becoming topical in the 21st century.
According to its scientifically based capabilities, the aircraft, conceived by a major general, exceeds the functionality of the shuttle in many basic indicators:
- all-azimuth launch;
- self-return to the launch site and the possibility of self-relocation;
- increased economic efficiency;
- using a larger range of orbit types;
- the possibility of a space plane to alternately become air at an altitude of 50-60 thousand km, and then return to space.
However, with all the advantages of the MiG-19 Myasishchev plane, it will not become important to study the distant complex right now. Before letting brave people into it, it is necessary to solve the problem of their radiation safety scientifically and technically.