Specialty journalism, like other professions, has its own characteristics. Here the specialist is faced with the problem of finding the topic and its design in the text version. To correctly reflect the reality and present your own thoughts, the journalist first of all needs perfect knowledge of the language and its modern norms, then possessing a literary talent that allows you to “feel” the words and intuitively distinguish their semantic features (and thus harmoniously embed them into the text), and Finally, knowledge of the fundamentals of textology, which will give an understanding of genres.
In this article we look at the main genres of journalism, which are typical for periodicals. However, this does not mean that they are irrelevant for television or radio journalism, because they are characterized by a common semantic basis and structure of the text, and the main difference is only in their application: some will be printed in publications, while others are voiced by broadcasters or presenters.
Information genres of journalism
Let's start with a description of the most common media genres today - information. Modern conditions dictate an accelerated pace of life: per unit of time, there is a mass of events that the public should know about, and it is this genre structure that can meet these requirements: turning on the TV, opening a newspaper or switching FM stations, we will definitely meet a summary of short messages that meet to the main questions: "What?" "Who?" "Where?" "When?" "How?".
This group of genres is common in electronic media and periodicals. It prevails where daily publication or broadcasting is required, therefore magazines, which are published with rare periodicity, are not so saturated with informational texts.
- the note;
- informational interview;
- information correspondence;
- information report;
- blitz survey.
The most common among them can be called a report, a note and correspondence.
Characteristic features for this group of genres:
- small volume;
- accuracy in expressions, lack of visual tools;
- the absence of the author's assessment of the lit event / phenomenon;
- factual description and content.
Analytical genres of journalism
This group of genres is represented by a variety of species. They are currently not so common for periodicals and television, but for radio these are completely atypical genres. Nevertheless, there are specialized magazines and television programs devoted to analytics of modern phenomena.
The main representatives of the genre:
- analytical report;
- analytical interview;
- analytical correspondence;
- journalistic investigation.
Such materials are among the most common. On television, they are allocated, in most cases, the evening, and in the periodicals there are whole headings. In fact, they are very valuable for journalism as a social phenomenon, because they provide an opportunity for the author to express his own opinion and open the world to a new view on ordinary things.
Characteristic features of this group of genres:
- the presence of the author's assessment;
- large amount of material;
- display of internal connections between events, phenomena and persons;
- prognostic assumptions.
Artistic and journalistic genres of journalism
This group of genres unites journalism and literature as much as possible. Mastering them testifies to the high level of skill of a journalist who is able not only to “get” information and analyze it, but also to submit it in artistic form. These genres of journalism require a rich vocabulary, and most importantly - literary talent. Currently, they are not as common in periodicals, on television and radio as they used to be, but they are still found in specialized programs and publications (mainly magazines). There is an opinion that today in the periodicals this journalism does not exist, however, we will not take a pessimistic point of view.
- feature article;
So, the brightest representative of the genre is an essay, the features of which suggest the possibility of maximum disclosure of the literary talent of a journalist.
- artistry (the presence in the text of visual means);
- emotional saturation;
- deep understanding of reality (author).
The ease of mastering these genres of journalism depends more on the author’s literary talent than on his professional skills and perfect language skills.