Protecting the borders and ensuring the safety of citizens is one of the main functions of the state. Military expenses make up a certain part of the state budget of any country. Their value is formed on the basis of two main parameters. The first and main one is the degree of external threat that the country feels. The second is given by the possibilities of the national economy, in particular, the size of the gross domestic product (GDP). "Guns or oil?" - such a question was repeatedly asked by leaders to their people, although they did not always want to hear an honest answer.
Militarization is an excessive increase in the share of military spending. It can be caused by a number of reasons, both external and domestic.
Leon Trotsky, arguing at the Ninth Congress of the RCP (B.) With Vl. Smirnov on the issue of transferring the economy of the young Soviet republic to a war footing, insisted that peasant and industrial labor should be organized according to the same principles as the army service, justifying this approach by a hostile environment. Moreover, the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council believed that militarization was only a half-measure, and was a supporter of the mobilization of the entire working-age population into the labor armies.
The position of the country in those years was similar to the situation in the besieged fortress. At the same time, the task was not to defend, but to spread Marxism over as large territories as possible with the prospect of involving all countries on the planet in the socialist alliance.
The priority development of heavy industry, which was the result of the industrialization policy adopted in the 1920s, was aimed at creating a production base that allows weapons to be produced in quantities never seen before. The overall energy intensity of the national economy has grown significantly, which required the construction of a fundamentally new energy complex. All these measures were not aimed at improving the welfare of the population, on the contrary, the people were required to tighten their belts more tightly.
Such an approach required the priority development of the military-industrial complex. Actually, the militarization in the USSR was not limited to the fact that defense products were manufactured at individual enterprises. Almost all the country's production facilities were involved in the process of preparing for war. For many decades, at each factory or factory, part of the production was accepted by the military, regardless of the profile and departmental affiliation.
The radio engineering, clothing, food industry, tractor and engineering industries worked primarily on defense. Consumer goods were produced on a residual basis. So carried out the hidden militarization. This phenomenon put heavy pressure on the Soviet economy, selecting the best specialists and truly enormous resources.
Special words deserve the militarization of space. The first satellite in the world was launched into orbit by an intercontinental military rocket designed to deliver nuclear charges to the target. Thus, the priority of the USSR in the development of near-Earth space is due to the achievements of the defense industry.
Most of the Soviet passenger airliners were built on the basis of a strategic bomber or military transport aircraft.
The burden of military spending ultimately proved unbearable, even for a country as rich in natural and human resources as the USSR. Excessive militarization is one of the reasons why the socialist economy failed.