- History of German Journalism
- Modern media
- Broadcasting and television
- Publicism by Karl Marx
- Consequences of censorship rules
- Russian media
- Modern media of Germany
The media is actively flooded the whole world. Every day we succumb to their influence, analyze, tell friends and acquaintances, draw certain conclusions and change our opinion. The system of imposing with the help of the media has become quite powerful since ancient times and to this day it has not lost its positions. This article is about the German media. Let's see how this system works there and how the Russian media in Germany work with information.
History of German Journalism
The first journalistic publications appeared in Germany in 1609. At that time, very few editions were issued, about 30, but in 1618 the number increased to 200 editions. These were mainly weeklies, such as Avizo and Relation.
At that time, the postal departments had a wide range of information, so it was they who were involved in publishing various issues. The first newspaper was published only in 1661, and weekly editions were issued in print runs from 200 to 1500 copies. The newspapers often published various information, economic news and other news that were thoroughly checked by the emperor.
Soon scientific, artistic, poetic publications began to form, saying that culture does not occupy the last place in the German media.
It was very important for the German authorities to cooperate with the media. Especially during the Third Reich and World War II, when it was necessary to conduct propaganda work. This was done by a specially created propaganda agency. Naturally, everything has resistance. So in this case, too, a resistance group appeared, which tried to resist the emerging order and propaganda. But they did not succeed, because at that time there was a very powerful government in Germany. Only the defeat of fascist Germany by the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition and the following political changes made it possible to launch the country and the media along with it on the path to the establishment of democracy. The rules have become much softer, and the German mass media have found freedom of speech.
German media today do not lose their high positions. They are an example of the Western European press. Following official statistics, which was published in the Federal Government Report on the State of the Media, today there are as many as 384 publishers in Germany. They produce 423 newspapers in daily format, the total circulation of which is 25.3 million copies, of which 19.2 million subscription newspapers. The main feature of the German media is a huge number of local and regional newspapers, which is explained by the centuries-old fragmentation of Germany.
Broadcasting and television
In the German media work public-law and private broadcasting.
Public broadcasting was created on a national basis, which is controlled by the councils of the society, where the authoritative political and public companies are represented. The list of Russian-language media in Germany remains limited.
The public and legal position for radio and television was chosen in order to ensure their independence from the power of the country and to enable the public to participate in the functioning of the working bodies. There are three bodies that make this review and control.
- Radio and Television Broadcasting Council. The members of this council are called to represent the interests of the people. They are either chosen by land parliaments, or directly appointed by certain political parties, religious organizations, business associations or cultural communities.
- Management Board. Members of this Council monitor the implementation of program directives, make up the allocation of the budget, and work as an “overseer” along the way. The Board also elects the Director General (in other words, the quartermaster), whose candidacy must be approved by the entire Board.
- The CEO in question (the same quartermaster). He is obliged to exercise leadership over the company in accordance with the decisions of all the boards and be responsible for the content of the program plans.
The main income of TV and radio companies is, of course, the subscriber's fee. That is why they lead a very modest, not flashy policy. After all, propaganda media receive much more funding, because they are subject to people of high status, who benefit from it.
Publicism by Karl Marx
The local character of the press remained very strange, and this was the main feature of German journalism. This was due to the fact that almost until the end of the 19th century, Germany was considered the “remote place of Europe”, “the country of rags”, “semi-feudal weak power”. Naturally, this had a very strong effect on the local press, and this was noted by many.
Given the fragmentation of Germany in the principality, only German united the inhabitants of the state into something single. Soon regional journalism appeared, which still exists today.
Consequences of censorship rules
Printing of publications was very slow, much slower than, for example, in France, which made Germany even more lagging behind. No one wanted to read German newspapers and magazines, preferring more French ones. And in 1823, the German publisher Friedrich Brockhaus allowed himself to express himself in this way: "Our German journalism is a complete nothingness."
The public complained that the press had become stingy, uninteresting and based only on facts. No entertaining speakers and at least some embellished texts. The German media in Germany used only facts, which made the articles dry and boring.
All this was a consequence of numerous censorship restrictions. Basically, the components of newspapers and magazines were the stories of authors who talked about their way of life. Most often it was not interesting to anyone. Another proof of this is the quotation of a single journalistic publication: “A common feature of newspapers and magazines of this era is the scarcity of content. Censorship did not allow discussion of the events, moods and requirements of the era - it was precisely those questions that worried the hearts that were forbidden to be touched upon in the press. ”
Political analyst Susanne Spam decided to find out exactly how the Russian media work in Germany. She says that the Russian media want to influence the consciousness and mood of their compatriots and not only - the Germans also become subject to the news flow. This is primarily due to the fact that about three million Russian speakers currently live in Germany.
Moreover, according to the political scientist, the influence of the Russian media on the Germans is not only through news channels, radio programs and television programs. A very wide range of information passes through social networks, as there is a huge number of users.
Will Germany respond to such actions by the Russian Federation? According to the political scientist - no. Germany will not take any action, because freedom of speech reigns in Germany. As long as the Russian mass media do not commit anything illegal or contrary to German traditions and laws, Germany will not make any decisions.
In general, Suzanne Spam believes that the goal of the Russian media is very simple and predictable - to show that Moscow’s power has a wide range of information dissemination and gives it to people who easily trust the national press. But do not forget about the German media in Russian.
Modern media of Germany
According to numerous characteristics, magazines of a certain specialization occupy the first place, and secondly, social and political journals. In third place - the departments, in the fourth - advertising.
At the moment, the system of German radio and television stations is called the "dual" system. This means that only two forms of ownership of telemedia work in Germany:
a) social and legal ownership;
b) private ownership.
The largest and richest owners are the magnates of the three concerns, which are among the 500 richest businessmen in Germany. These are concerns of Bertelsman, Springer and Burda. In total, there are 15 private television companies in Germany. In Germany, there are more than 500 information agencies that are engaged in the collection and processing of socio-political information. They accurately process it and only then start broadcasting or printing.
This is how the German media in the 21st century is arranged - freedom of speech, while filtering information is still present.
German media are a great example of free speech. On the one hand, foreign media are also allowed to intervene, and on the other, foreign media will be punished for violating the rules and laws.
This is a very correct position, which is not supported in many countries. Every German journalist can express his thoughts and positions, and this will not be punishable. Today's changes in the field of journalism and the media are very different from those that existed during the Second World War. There reigned full control over each letter, and at the slightest suspicion of the author’s disobedience, they were subjected to cruel harassment.
When changes take place in a positive way, this is very well reflected not only in the internal affairs of the country itself, but also in external relations with other countries.
So, it can be concluded that Germany has taken a very correct and advantageous position, thus not allowing the disorder to develop in its country and at the same time learning about the positions of other countries (for example, Russia). German-speaking Russian media do not have such a clear position - they are aimed at disseminating information for the Russian diaspora.