- Years of study
- Starting a career in Soviet Estonia
- Scientific activities
- Singing revolution
- Estonia’s withdrawal from the USSR
- Confrontation May 15, 1990
- Head of the Estonian Government
- Career in a new country
- Personal life
Edgar Savisaar (born May 31, 1950) is an Estonian politician, one of the founders of the Estonian Popular Front and the leader of the Center Party. He was the last Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Estonian SSR and the first acting Prime Minister of independent Estonia, the Minister of the Interior, the Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications and the Mayor of Tallinn.
Where does Edgar Savisaar lead his life? His biography began in the prison of the Estonian village of Harku, where his mother Maria served a five-year term, which she received for company with her husband Elmar for trying to sell her own horse instead of taking it to the collective farm. Parents of Edgar lived in the district of Põlvamaa, bordering with the Pskov region of Russia. The population there is actually mixed, there are many people with Russian surnames. So Edgar's mother in girlhood wore the name of Bureshin, her father and grandfather's name was Vasily and Matvey, respectively, and her brother, who was a policeman and a collective farm party organizer, was Alexey.
Such is the story, which was quite a lot in the then USSR that happened to Elmar and Maria Savisaar, who got off cheaply (if you can say that at all!), Because her husband was given 15 years of camps. Maria saved the pregnancy and childbirth, a few months after the birth of her son, she was released from prison under an amnesty.
Years of study
It is known that Edgar Savisaar started working early, starting to work at the Republican Clinical Hospital in Tartu. After work, he studied at the evening school, which he graduated in 1968. Then Edgar Savisaar continued his studies at the Faculty of History at the University of Tartu, which he graduated in 1973. During his studies, from 1969 he worked as an instructor in the Tartu Komsomol District Committee of Estonia, and from 1970 to 1973 - an archivist of the Estonian State Historical Archive.
Starting a career in Soviet Estonia
Where did Edgar Savisaar work after completing his studies? His biography continued in his native district of Põlvamaa, where he worked as a high school teacher. In those years, student construction teams were very popular in the country. In Estonia, this movement had a certain specificity. Practically all high school students, students of vocational schools and technical colleges went to local collective and state farms in the summer to help agriculture. They were organized into detachments led by commanders and commissioners, which were Komsomol workers and young teachers. One of these commissioners was Edgar Savisaar. He led all this movement, of course, the Central Committee of the Komsomol of Estonia.
It is obvious that active social work helped the young teacher to get to the postgraduate school at the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR in 1977, where he studied until 1979. Edgar Savisaar spent this time not in vain, having managed to write a dissertation in which he studied the approaches of the Rome Club in shaping global social processes. The following year, he successfully defended it at the Moscow Institute for System Analysis.
In 1980-1985 Savisaar works in the executive committee of the Tallinn City Council, is engaged in economic planning. Simultaneously, since 1982, he has been working as an associate professor at the Department of Philosophy of the Estonian Academy of Sciences.
In 1985-1988 Savisaar works in the State Planning Committee of Estonia. In 1988-1989 He was the research director of the Minor consulting company.
With the beginning of Gorbachev's perestroika in the USSR, Savisaar publishes articles in the Estonian press on the need to reform society. He is invited to television in the popular evening show "Think again." Articles and speeches of Savisaar are actively discussed in the republic.
In April 1988, he, together with a group of like-minded people, created the Popular Front (Rahvarinne), which became the first mass political organization in the Soviet Union since 1920 that was not controlled by the Communist Party. Originally created to support the restructuring, the Popular Front began to develop more and more the ideas of Estonian national independence and created the phenomenon of the so-called singing revolution, a distinctive feature of which was the unification of Estonians at rallies into thousands of traditional choirs performing folk songs.
Estonia’s withdrawal from the USSR
Since the end of 1988, the Supreme Council of the Estonian SSR has consistently pursued a policy aimed at secession of the republic from the union. First, in the autumn of 1988, the Declaration of Sovereignty was adopted, which proclaims the supremacy of Estonian laws over the Allies. A year later, a resolution was issued recognizing the entry of Estonia into the USSR in July 1940 as illegal.
In the same 1989, Edgar Savisaar, being the leader of the Popular Front, became the vice-chairman of the Council of Ministers of Estonia and the head of its State Planning Commission. In March 1990, elections to the Supreme Soviet are held, in which the Popular Front gets only 24% of the vote, but it is Savisaru who is responsible for forming the government. How could this happen? The fact is that the Estonian communists, a week after the elections, decide to quit the CPSU, and their representatives in the Supreme Soviet withdraw themselves from the government of the republic. As a result, Savisaar forms a government from the members of the Popular Front, becoming chairman of the Council of Ministers of the still Estonian SSR.
However, within a few days, the Supreme Council declared the very existence of the Union Republic illegal, and on May 8 of the same 1990, renamed the Estonian SSR into the Republic of Estonia, with the abolition of the former hymn, flag and coat of arms and the restoration of the 1938 Constitution.
Confrontation May 15, 1990
Not everyone in Estonia liked what was happening. After all, over 40% of its population at that time were Russian and Russian-speaking citizens who linked their future and its guarantees with the preservation of the Soviet Union. In contrast to the Popular Front, they created the Interfront movement.
On May 15, 1990, thousands of his supporters flooded Lossie Square in front of the Supreme Council. A red flag was erected on its building (next to the tricolor Estonian), and hundreds of protesters, breaking through the police barrier, went inside. They demanded a meeting with the chairman of the Supreme Court Ruytel, but he did not appear before them.
At this time, Edgar Savisaar spoke on Estonian radio in Estonian. He repeatedly repeated information about the alleged assault by supporters of the Interfront of the Government House on Toompea Square and urged Estonians to gather in this place. People responded to his call, and two centers of concentration of forces were formed in the city. A little more, and the case could reach a direct collision. Under these conditions, the leaders of the Interfront, Mikhail Lysenko and Vladimir Yarovoy, decided not to aggravate the situation and divert their supporters from the AF building. His guards, like the guards of other state institutions, instead of the police, were taken over by the Estonian self-defense forces, the Kiteselite. On that day, the Soviet government in Estonia suffered a defeat, but it was not yet completely collapsed.
Head of the Estonian Government
Almost a year and a half until the attempted coup in the USSR in August 1991, the Estonian authorities, led by Savisaar and Ruutel, maneuvered in an attempt to gain recognition from the Soviet leadership. But the latter was in no hurry to do this, especially since there were quite a few units of the Soviet Army in Estonia. And here it was not anyone who came to the aid of the Estonian nationalists, but Boris Yeltsin, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.
Arriving in Tallinn in January 1991, Yeltsin, on behalf of the RSFSR, signs an agreement with Estonia, in which he recognizes its independence. Of course, this was a signal for the nationalists in all the other Union republics, and they heard him, starting to bite off pieces from the still unified Union, and in the end they cracked him after the failure of the August 1991 coup.
Career in a new country
Savisaar did not long lead the government of independent Estonia. Breaking old turned out to be easier than creating new. As a result of the breakdown of economic ties with Russia at the beginning of 1992, a sharp economic crisis erupted in the country, so the country even had to introduce ration cards. In the wake of general discontent at the end of January 1992, the government of Savisaar resigned.
After that, for several years he was vice-chairman of parliament, held ministerial posts in various offices, was the mayor of the capital from 2001 to 2004, then returned to the government to the ministerial post. And finally, since 2007, Edgar Savisaar was elected Mayor of Tallinn. A photo of him from this period is shown below.
The history connected with the transfer in 2007 from the center of Tallinn of a sculpture of a bronze soldier, a monument to the perished Soviet soldiers, acquired a wide resonance. Savisaar spoke out against this action, as a result of which he was accused by Estonian radicals of pro-Russian views.
It would seem that could threaten such an experienced and sophisticated politician, like Edgar Savisaar? His arrest in September 2015 on bribery charges was like a bolt from the blue. The prosecutor's office accused him, as well as other officials of the Tallinn City Hall, in accepting bribes worth several hundred thousand euros, and the court dismissed the mayor for the period of the investigation.
Edgar Savisaar was married three times and is the father of four children. From his marriage with Kaira Savisaar he has a son Erki, and from a marriage with Liis Savisaar he has a daughter Maria and a son Edgar. The last marriage was with Vilja Savisaar, who is also an Estonian politician. They have a daughter, Rosina. The last marriage also collapsed in December 2009.
In March 2015, his admission was reported. What is sick Edgar Savisaar? His illness was caused by a bacterial infection. It caused a serious complication and inflammation of the soft tissues of the right leg.
What happened to such a famous person and politician as Edgar Savisaar? Amputation of the right leg above the knee. It goes without saying that to withstand all the blows of fate that it inflicts is not easy. However, let us hope that Edgar Savisaar, whose health has greatly failed him at the most critical moment of his life, is nevertheless a strong kind, able to survive all the trials that have befallen him.