- The origin of socialism
- The essence of socialist society
- Basics of the political model
- Ideas embedded in socialism
- Utopian socialism
- Marxist socialism
- Stages of development
- Building a developed socialist society in the USSR
The formation of the Soviet Union was initially based on a gradual transition to a communist society, however, for all the years of its existence, the goal has not been achieved. But one can safely say that a socialist society was built in the USSR, which corresponds to practically all the basic principles laid down in the concept. Initially, this kind of society was considered only a small step leading to a bright communist future, but over time it became a completely separate concept.
The origin of socialism
In order to understand what the socialist system of society is, the first step is to reject it as a concept that appeared exclusively in the 20th century. History draws our attention at least to the existence of two states, which basically had echoes of socialism.
- Ancient Mesopotamia, which became one of the first states that emerged on Earth. It was based on the power of the temples, around which ordinary people gathered. Deep rivers gave impetus to the active development of agriculture, and as a result, the territory was divided into several small states at once. However, numerous cuneiform tablets reached our time, allowing us to find out the economic side: all the cultivated products were sent to the warehouse, from where they were distributed to each worker, and could not have land ownership at that time.
- The Inca Empire before the period of conquest also resembled a socialist society: practically none of the residents of this state owned property, and the concept of private property or money as such did not exist. Trade was not considered a weighty exercise. Everything was controlled by the king, so that the whole territory was considered state property and was given out for use.
Having gone deep into history, one can find a great many similar examples both in the Middle Ages and in modern times.
The essence of socialist society
There are many concepts that scientists put into the concept of socialism. However, the base is a political-economic system of government, the basis of which is the predominance of society over everything. All production and income distribution falls on the shoulders of not individual leaders, but ordinary people in their mass.
It is believed that in a developed socialist society, instead of private property prevailing in capitalism, it is public property that plays the main role, and the individual and the state itself are in the background. At the forefront is the team.
Basics of the political model
Over the centuries, the idea of a socialist society gradually changed. The result was the following theoretical foundations of this type of state:
- the complete abolition of private property and the transfer of control over the individual collective bureaucratic power;
- the destruction not only of property, but also of the very institutions of marriage, religion, and family (for a long time, the basic concept even lay the exchange of wives and children).
Such a model was offered only theoretically, and in practice it was never implemented even in the early centuries. There are huge differences between the theoretical and practical models of socialism.
Ideas embedded in socialism
It is now generally accepted socialist society to consider the phenomenon of the XX century, which appeared in opposition to capitalism in the West or arose on the basis of the behavior of the inhabitants of Arab or African countries.
However, based on history, one can understand the basic idea that scientists have laid in socialism. They believe that a person is initially predisposed for collective work, therefore, for the work he has done, he can safely receive a share of the benefits of the whole society. But at the same time, able-bodied citizens should also provide segments of the population, such as people with disabilities or pensioners who cannot take care of themselves, by means of equal distribution.
The idea of such a society, where all people are completely equal, and class inequality does not exist in principle, seems incredibly attractive to many. All the needs of ordinary citizens are met completely free of charge: education, medicine, recreation, culture. It is assumed that the individual is completely satisfied with what he receives and does not want to achieve more or self-actualization.
The principles of universal justice and equality between any members of society, regardless of the tasks they perform, always form the basis of a socialist state. The main positions are as follows:
- the priority of society over the individual: any person is completely dependent on the team and all his actions are aimed at his benefit;
- the complete elimination of any class inequality;
- collectivism: all people belonging to society are linked by close ties of brotherhood;
- replacement of private property with public;
- planned economy - the entire economy is fully regulated by the state itself.
At the same time, it is necessary to take into account that there are various types of socialist society: utopian, peasant, Marxist and others. Each of them may prioritize a number of other signs, but the ones listed above are the basis for any.
All ideas of a socialist society were built precisely on the basis of utopia. Thomas More, in his work on the ideal state, did not lay down the laws of social development as the basis for the transformation of society. Therefore, utopian socialism sharply criticized capitalist society and dreamed of destroying it, but at the same time did not offer a real way out of the situation.
The basis of this type of socialism was equality and fraternity of people, which was preached by early Christians, sharp criticism of the bourgeoisie and recognition of state power as the main stimulator of the development of the socialist system of society. More proposed to build a social system of an absolutely perfect form - complete freedom, equality and fraternity for any person.
For the first time, Marx and Engels began to transform the theoretical utopian model of socialism into a science that can be put into practice at least a little. They believed that in the course of normal historical development after the class struggle of the proletariat, which called upon all working people to themselves, a socialist society could be built.
In the Marxist theory, socialism was considered just one of the steps through which a capitalist state could become communist. That is, only a supporting role was assigned to him. Both economists recognized that this type of society must have certain features of capitalism, and therefore all the results of labor should be distributed according to what the contribution of the individual worker. The basis of this type of socialism was based on the principle of equivalence, but at the same time in personal property there can be nothing but individual consumer products. And private enterprise should be a criminal offense.
Stages of development
In the modern literature there is enough contradictory information about how the construction of a socialist society should take place. However, two main stages can still be distinguished:
- dictatorship of the proletariat;
- public society.
It is not customary to single out a special stage, during which the society is reorganized directly into the whole nation. This is still the reason for numerous disputes between scientists. For some of them distinguish the third stage - overgrowing.
Building a developed socialist society in the USSR
In practice, in the Soviet Union for a long time they tried to build a socialist state, but this was not possible from the start. Writing the phrase “the USSR is a developed socialist society” in the Constitution does not make the country as such. The goals set by socialism are unnecessarily utopian. State administration is impossible by a huge mass of people - a leader is surely needed. In Russia, they were Stalin, Khrushchev and many others who led the team.
At the moment, it is generally accepted that, despite building a model of socialism based on all its dogmas, in practice such a state simply could not exist, and therefore a breakup occurred. However, it is worth paying attention to this: socialism in the country was at the initial stage and underwent many deformations.
As a result, it cannot be said that he has become the most disgusting of the existing social systems. However, it can be argued that socialism in the USSR had many flaws, so it could not really be considered as such.