UK media: history, development and current trends

Anonim

Every person's life is closely connected with the media. If earlier these were print and radio publications, then recently more and more large and small enterprises prefer to deliver information via the Internet. Consider the features of the development and formation of the UK media, what types of publications exist at the moment, and also analyze the specifics of their work and possible development prospects.

Mass media and their signs

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Mass media or mass media are broadcast channels through which a quick transfer of information to a specific audience takes place.

Signs of the media are:

  • frequency (at least once a year certain information should come from the channel);
  • mass character (information should be delivered to at least 1 thousand users);
  • sources of information (for example, the media in the UK and the USA, which are the most popular and popular among users around the world, have proven sources, which is why people choose them for the truthfulness of the information they bring).

The media can include print publications (newspapers, magazines, collections), television and radio broadcasting, Internet portals or websites, as well as news agencies. Media do not include wall newspapers, library collections, forums and conferences. Also, various blocks or blogs on the Internet did not relate to the media before, but lately this is the only source of information for some users, moreover, available to many.

Classification of modern media

All media can be divided conditionally into groups according to the following criteria:

  • form of ownership: private or public (for example, the leading media in the UK (in particular, the BBC) are state-owned, and every Briton who pays taxes directly sponsors this source of information);
  • the breadth of distribution (regional channels or publications, central and international, broadcasting and popular around the world);
  • broadcasting style (high-quality, “yellow press”, scandalous, for a female or male audience);
  • frequency (every day, week, month, year);
  • genres (public, political, entertainment, industry, advertising).

Often the channels, especially the British, work in several directions at once. For example, the BBC or SKY channel is a newspaper, TV and radio broadcasting simultaneously. In addition, broadcasting is carried out not only in the UK, but throughout the world.

General characteristics of the media in the UK

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UK media have the most developed and extensive network in the world. At the same time, two out of three Britons who have reached the age of 15 years read periodicals, which indicates the relevance of this sector. Every day more than 200 editions are issued here, weekly - about 1300 newspapers or magazines, 2000 local broadcast channels work.

At the same time, the press of Britain can be divided into two main groups:

  • Solid edition.

These are broadband newspapers covering the most resonant socio-political events in the country. This is a series of high-quality press, the pages of which contain only verified information. This group includes the following sources: The Guardian, BBC, the Telegraph, the SKY, the Times, Independent.

  • Popular "tabloid" press.

In such publications there is also a place for politics, but most of the information is of an entertaining nature and belongs to the “yellow press” series. These are rumors, ducks, private stories. Such publications like to choose a catchy headline, which naturally attracts readers, but in fact the quality of information leaves much to be desired. These publications include: the SUN, DailyStar, DailyMail, The Express.

Despite the fact that in style these two groups are different, such publications are very popular among the British.

British Press Review

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Since there are thousands of broadcast channels and 6.5 thousand print publications in Britain, we will single out the largest British media:

  1. The BBC is a popular broadcasting corporation founded in 1922. Its structure includes television channels, radio (local and national) and periodicals (regional and international). This structure broadcasts worldwide, there are also online publications covering information in Russian (BBC Russian).
  2. The Guardian - founded in 1821, circulation up to 1 million copies.
  3. The Times is one of the oldest print publications, founded in 1785. Circulation is small - more than half a million copies, and to read information on the website on the Internet, it is worth going through a paid registration procedure.
  4. Financial Times - founded in 1888, the circulation of more than 100 thousand copies, the popularity only in business circles among the financiers. The only newspaper whose sales are more abroad than domestically.
  5. Independent - year of foundation - 1986, circulation - 250 thousand copies.
  6. Telegraph - founded in 1855, circulation - about 1 million copies.
  7. The Daily Mail was founded in 1896, with a circulation of over 2 million copies.
  8. Sun - founded in 1964, the circulation of the newspaper more than 3.4 million copies. Issued daily, although it belongs to the category of scandalous and low-quality press.
  9. Express - founded in 1900.
  10. Mirror - founded in 1903.

In addition, there are special magazines for the female audience, which are not less popular. There are also publications of certain public organizations, universities, statistical information, accounting and economic orientation, regional press, which is published in almost every million-plus city.

Russian press: history and development prospects

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the UK is filled with immigrants from around the world. Now a third of Londoners are foreigners. A considerable number of Russian-speaking citizens live in Britain. According to approximate estimates, their number is more than 200 thousand people. That is why there is media in the UK in Russian, as well as in others, since there are a lot of foreigners in the country.

The largest and most popular source of information about the situations and events in the country for Russian-speaking citizens is BBC Russian. This is an analogue of the BBC, only in Russian. Other sources of information also function. For example, "London Courier", "London-INFO" - come out with a weekly circulation of more than 12 thousand copies. For publications that are distributed free or by subscription, include "Pulse UK" and "England: ours on the island." The Russian-language press is also published in other cities where many Russians live.

In connection with the development of the Internet, the media actively moved to the world wide web. Russians who live in Britain are used to trusting information that is available on the Internet. Among the sites that broadcast from London to Russian-speaking citizens in Britain, the following publications stand out: Ruconnect, MK-London, TheUK.one and others. They are not printed, but cover the events taking place in the UK, in Russian. Most often these are articles translated from English sources of the same BBC, The Guardian and others into Russian.

TV features

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The history of the UK media begins in 1936. At first, it was only the BBC public broadcasting, and a few years later commercial television was developed. According to statistics, the average British resident spends more than three hours a day near the TV. The broadcasting license, as well as the control over the news coverage process, is conducted by the Independent Television Commission (NTC).

The state strictly controls the broadcasting process. So, about a quarter of airtime is devoted to documentary programs and news. There is no commercial advertising on the Air Force channels; promotion of a certain political party is also prohibited. The media on the eve of the elections should cover the events impartially.

Despite impartiality, the image of Russia in the UK media, especially on channels and the Air Force website, is somewhat distorted. According to both Russian observers and Russian citizens living in Britain, English-speaking sources have a somewhat negative attitude towards policies pursued in their homeland.

Overview of British TV channels

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British television channels are the most influential in the world. Consider the most significant in more detail.

  • BBC.

Air Force One - one of the very first British channels, which is very popular among the population, despite the collection of pay-per-view. Air Force Two - there are many documentary programs for every taste and artistic series. The BBC Three is an experimental channel that broadcasts a wide variety of programs and films. BBC Four - broadcasts foreign films, for example, of French production, which is somewhat strange for the UK media.

There is no advertising on all channels of the Air Force, since they are funded by the state.

  • ITV.

The main competitor of the Air Force, but works on a commercial basis. Income receives from the broadcast advertising. Despite the quality content, his ratings are lower than those of a competitor.

  • Channel 4.

State TV channel, but bolder than previous channels. Here the most diverse programs are broadcast, especially reality shows, which bring popularity to the channel in certain circles.

  • Sky.

If previously there was no original content, then recently the channel has invested money in its own projects. But the feature is the screen version of famous novels.

As such, there is no censorship on television. In addition, each user, if he does not like something, can complain to the Communications Department, which will investigate and fine the TV channel.

Features broadcasting

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Modern media in the UK - is primarily a radio that is no less popular with the British than television. The most significant is the BBC, which has several channels, and each specializes in something of its own. In addition, this radio is broadcast in 45 different languages, you can listen to it anywhere in the world.

In addition to state radio stations, there are also commercial and many regional ones. Recently, in Britain, radio stations that were not tied to a region, but to a certain segment of the population have received a big push. For example, Matryoshka Radio UK is a radio station broadcasting in London and Glasgow for the Russian-speaking population living in Britain.

Britain's Prints: History, Varieties and Specifics

The UK media is primarily print. Although recently they have moved to the maximum to the Internet. Now each newspaper has a special website or applications on the phone to view information on a convenient device.

Also, many print publications publish information only on the Internet, since young people do not want to read real newspapers lately.

Earlier, British newspapers were in the form of books, pamphlets. The first prints were released in the 15th century. For a long time there was a tradition to issue Sunday newspapers.

Now the BBC (there is also the BBC Russian - edition in Russian), The Guardian, Evening Standard, The Telegraph, Daily Mail, etc. It is very appreciated regarding the presentation of the material, but has a rather large audience of readers.

What media do the British themselves prefer?

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The British are reading the most diverse press. At the same time, it can be noted that they quite clearly and without constraint express their position regarding everything that concerns the British media. Independent state publications are the most popular, for which every taxpayer in the country pays.

There are also a mass of commercial publications or informational portals focused. For example, the Ruconnect portal covers in Russian everything related to the life of Russian, Ukrainian and Baltic citizens living in Britain. There are also other publications for the Polish diaspora and other foreign citizens.

It is worth noting that the British media in Russia also read, but do not quite trust. The most popular BBC Russian.

Conclusion

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The UK has a long history of print, radio and television. The British themselves are watching quite diverse channels, but trust public broadcasters.

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