Baryshev's submachine gun: characteristics (photo)


The world fame of "Kalash" for many decades remained indisputable. Due to the totality of its combat and technological qualities, this sample of small arms is unmatched among all the analogues produced on our planet. However, there was a designer gunsmith, who managed to create something so outstanding that the opinion of the indisputable superiority of the AK became controversial. This inventor is also Russian, his last name is Baryshev. The machine gun designed by him shoots more accurately, more closely, and more. About the master and his creation will be a story.


Rapid XX century and its weapon legends

It is believed that the twentieth century was the era of the legendary gunsmiths. Perhaps this is true, although they owe much of the glory to two sad circumstances. The first of these is the increased informative saturation, the emergence of these types of means of mass notification (and fooling too), such as radio, television, and the worldwide computer network. But this factor cannot explain the popularity of the Kalashnikov family in different countries, including those where most of the population cannot read. And this means, of course, not the Lermontov character, the merchant, but his rapid-fire namesake. Circulation AK exceeds the number of printed copies of any book. Of course, Baryshev is much less known than Kalashnikov; his design automaton is not yet mass produced. The reasons for the absence of world fame are not related to small-scale and technological characteristics. The popularity of this model is still ahead, perhaps its design just ahead of its time.


The beginning of the labor journey of the inventor

This gunsmith is often called self-taught, bearing in mind, obviously, his lack of a higher education diploma. Yes, indeed, Anatoly Baryshev did not graduate from the university or university. He created his machine gun, however, relying not on natural ingenuity or people's instincts. A designer was born in Istra, situated near Moscow, in 1931, then graduated from the Kaliningrad Technical School, where, obviously, the level of knowledge was given no worse than in modern universities (at least, by special subjects). Work at the weapons enterprises, the main specialists of which were AM Lyulka and V. G. Grabin, contributed to gaining experience, without which this specialist cannot do. Already undergoing military service from 1951 to 1954, the young man made rational proposals in the design of shooting simulators, invented and created. In 1952, a twenty-year-old soldier realized that his goal was his own machine gun. Baryshev was impossible to stop.

main idea

The main enemy of accuracy of rapid-fire weapons associated with its main advantage. When firing in bursts, each fighter knows that at best, the first bullet hits the target, the rest fly at random. This is due to recoil, throwing the trunk up and down, right and left. If this negative factor is somehow leveled out, shooting will immediately become more accurate. Anatoly Baryshev’s submachine gun is characterized by extremely low (tripled) recoil. The designer invented the main invention of the whole life a long time ago, but its implementation in practice took a lot of time. In 1962, Baryshev himself, without a task “from above, ” in order of personal initiative, began work on a special mechanism for blocking the barrel bore. The path was long, there were enough ill-wishers, including among specialists, who understood that this author’s system could be revolutionary if successful. Not for all, such a result was desirable. Once it came to the point that all the development of the prospector was ordered to destroy in two days. Fortunately, this order remained unfulfilled.


The essence of the invention

Recoil occurs for two reasons. First, everyone from school knows Newton's third law, which says that accelerating a bullet causes an oppositely directed reaction of a gun, carbine or machine gun. The bullet is much lighter, but it also crashes quickly. The second reason is the work of a mechanism that instantly reacts to a shot and produces its work in a short period of time. If nothing can be done with the fundamental natural laws, something needs to be invented by locking the barrel bore, the designer decided. The Baryshev machine gun differs from other systems in precisely not rigid, but in a smooth, “stretched” in time working cycle. To achieve this, the elements of the locking assembly are connected in series, and in each of them a partial damping of the recoil pulse occurs. This depreciation leads to stabilization of the trunk and a significant improvement in accuracy, that is, exactly the result that every shooter dreams of.


Further development of the concept

If the recoil is less, then this means that the weapon can in principle shoot with heavier ammunition, which creates conditions for the use of large calibers and even grenades. The first design presented to the high commissions was the Baryshev 7.62 54-mm machine gun (cartridge length), then the complex with a single vision was replenished with a rifle of the same caliber and a bikaliber system, including a 12.7-mm machine gun and AGB-30, an automatic grenade launcher firing 30mm grenades. Individual weapons acquired previously uncharacteristic of this class firepower.

The invention needed a documentary confirmation of priority, however, departmental friction and other sad realities of the late Soviet society did not allow the author to become the holder of the certificate. In 1992, the patent was nevertheless obtained (No. 2002195), but outstanding achievement remained unclaimed.


Overseas epic

Baryshev’s automatic machine design has been patented in a good dozen countries today (China, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Switzerland, France, Italy, India, Germany, Belgium, Britain, Austria and even Ukraine). But such a pastoral picture was not always. The Czech private arms enterprise, with whom the author signed a cooperation agreement (the difficult 1990s were going), decided to use the difficult legal situation in the legal situation to simply deceive him. At the international exhibition IDET in 1995, it presented the Baryshev machine gun as its own exhibit, a photo of the sample was decorated with an advertising booklet, and the name of the inventor was not even mentioned in these printed materials. The contract was terminated.

Another company, also Czech (Czech Weapons), did it in about the same way in 2014, issuing the Baryshev AB 7 62-gauge machine for its own CZW-762. It remains to be surprised so naive attempts. However, it is quite possible that the manufacturer from the Czech Republic nevertheless reached some agreements with the author of the design.


In Russia

It would seem that such an interesting weapon, and even its own national author, should be used at home. In addition, in terms of technology, it is as excellent as the AK-47, which is familiar to everyone. Moreover, 60% of Kalashnikov’s details are, with the complete uniqueness of the kinematic scheme and a completely different main idea, the design of the battery. This, too, manifested the genius of the author, as well as his concern for the Russian economy and minimizing the cost of retooling production. Nevertheless, the Baryshev machine gun has not yet been launched into production, although those participants in the tests who were fortunate enough to hold a weapon in their hands did not hold back positive emotions. Especially praise came from special forces soldiers who used prototypes in real operations. By the way, back in the 80s, employees and experts from the GRU and the KGB showed close attention to the brainchild of Baryshev.

Tactical and technical data

The quality of a weapon is objectively evaluated by digital indicators, although it is not always possible for them to describe all the features and advantages of a sample. Nevertheless, here they are presented for convenience in the form of a table:

NameAutomatic machine AB-7.62Carabiner AVB-7, 62
Caliber, mm7.62 x 39 M437.62x54R or 7.62 x 51 NATO standards
Full length (butt decomposed) mm960/7101000/750
Barrel length, mm415455
Unloaded weapon weight, kg3, 6003, 900
Rate of fire / min.750750
Store capacity, pcs.thirty10 or 20


If there is such an important advantage as a low return rate in combination with the relative and simplicity of the device, due to the absence of a gas outlet channel in the design, it is impossible to objectively evaluate the Baryshev machine without mentioning its shortcomings. The slide group turned out to be too massive with the general “flimsy” (according to one of the testers) impression from the sample. How will the impact of this node on the receiver box, it is difficult to predict. The lack of reliability was stated by the participants of the early tests, but it is quite possible that today this deficiency has been eliminated.

Some complaints were caused by the delay between pulling the trigger and the first shot, but there is nothing to be done, this is a matter of principle, and the low return is due just to some slowdown in the operation of the entire locking mechanism.


Prospective sample

Undoubtedly, this machine has advantages and advantages that determine its future prospects. Low returns, high accuracy and accuracy, technological simplicity and a high degree of unification with the main model of small arms of the Russian and many other armies in the world can be a motivating factor in the deployment of mass production of anti-aircraft guns. However, there are also constraints, including the need for serious investment. The budgetary expenses necessary for the introduction of the new model are not currently priorities for the defense of the country, where the improvement of the nuclear shield and air defense systems, which directly provide security on a global-strategic scale, is more important today.

Most likely, Baryshev's automata will be manufactured primarily to equip them with special units, at least at the first stage. They are lighter than the Kalashnikovs, and meet all the requirements for such weapons (even the stock was originally made folding).

Mass re-equipment of small-scale models of the new type in the Soviet army took place in the post-war years, when PCA machines, issued by industry in the amount of six million, were gradually replaced by AKs.

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