BTR-80: technical specifications and operation

Anonim

Despite the release of a new model of the BTR-82, the BTR-80 is the most popular armored personnel carrier in the Russian army. This wheeled vehicle was created taking into account the experience of previous military conflicts. The BTR-80 boosts small water barriers, quickly picks up speed, has good maneuverability, coupled with weapons, engine and crew armor. There is also fire-fighting equipment and radiation protection - a tribute to the capabilities of modern weapons. The main task of the machine is to quickly deliver troops on the battlefield and provide cover. In the case of defense organization, an armored personnel carrier is driven into the ground, and a turret with a machine gun turns into a pillbox.

Which troops is used

The scope of the BTR is quite wide. If we talk about the BTR-80, technical characteristics allow the use of this transport in a variety of troops. It is mainly used by motorized riflemen. In any textbook on tactics, you can find battle plans in various situations by a motorized rifle platoon and three armored personnel carriers.

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High speed and maneuverability make the BTR-80 an ideal vehicle for amphibious units. The ability to force water barriers and the ability to transport on amphibious ships allow it to be used in marine operations. The eight-wheeled vehicle easily slides along the ramps into the water, reaches the coast within a few minutes under cover of artillery, and proceeds to storm the land, and the black berets are waiting in the wings for armor.

It is also possible to reset the equipment from the aircraft, after landing, the BTR immediately enters the battle. Modern parachute systems allow tanks and armored personnel carriers to be dropped immediately with the crew, with minimal risk to people.

In addition to Russia, the BTR-80 is actively used in the CIS countries, Estonia, Turkey, etc.

Places of military glory

Since 1976, in the Soviet Union, the BTR-70 was the main armored personnel carrier - the car was not bad, but it inherited the shortcomings of its predecessor - the BTR-60PB. He had a high fuel consumption, insufficiently thought-out system of landing and landing troops, unreliable power plant. In the early 80s, the design bureau of the Gorky Automobile Plant designed a new armored personnel carrier - the BTR-80, the characteristics of which allow it to be used in a variety of conditions. The new equipment has earned its fame with hard work, having passed the roads of all military conflicts of the USSR and the CIS since the late 1980s: Moldova, Tajikistan, Chechnya, Nagorno-Karabakh, etc.

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The BTR-80 was used as the main vehicle in the wars in the North Caucasus. The assault force drove right on the roof of the passport. In the event of a fighting collision on the way, the soldiers jumped off and hid behind armored sides.

For foreigners, the Russian soldier is associated not only with a Kalashnikov assault rifle, but also with the BTR-80. The technical characteristics make it possible to effectively use the equipment in anti-terrorist operations. This is the most popular wheeled vehicle in the Russian army, modifications based on the BTR-80 are used by assault, communications, artillery, and also as a mobile first-aid post.

Appearance

Many combat vehicles have about the same appearance as the BTR-80. The photo below is presented for better information perception. The body is made of bronestali, welded rigidly and reliably. The main elements are the bow, the stern, the sides, the roof and the bottom. Trasportnik has a whole collection of hatches: for the winch in the bow, there are also access hatches, for the HLF, hatches for the driver and commander, the crew compartment and the hatch above the power plant. Also in front there is a wave reflection shield.

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The tower is made in the form of a truncated cone, it has loopholes for installing twin machine guns. Welded from bronestali.

BTR-80. User's manual

The armored personnel carrier is operated like a regular car, there is a steering wheel, pedals and a gear shift lever. On new models there is even an automatic transmission. Overview for the driver is too small, but it is not a racing car. The main thing is to see everything ahead, and the BTR-80, with its mass and power, will not even notice what is on the side. It does not have such cross-country ability as tracked vehicles, but it is irreplaceable in fights on level terrain. The rapid movement of the landing will allow you to create a numerical and fire advantage at the right points. Block the streets and parts of the city, force the river, squeeze enemy infantry with machine gun fire - the BTR-80 was created to perform just such tasks.

Technical changes in the engine

In the 80s, the designers of the Gorky Automobile Plant were tasked to create an armored personnel carrier, eliminating the shortcomings of the BTR-70. The device BTR-80 is very different from its predecessor. First of all, instead of two carburetor engines, one diesel engine from the KamAZ vehicle was installed - a 4-stroke 8-cylinder diesel engine with liquid cooling. Such an engine is less likely to explode, and its volume is 30 percent higher than the volume of its predecessor. Turbocharger installed to increase power. As a result, the BTR-80 has 260 hp, accelerates to 100 km / h. It is in perfect conditions. On the highway - 80 km / h, on a dirt road - from 20 to 40 km / h. Can force water barriers at a speed of 9 km / h.

The use of one engine pulled along with other changes. In the transmission, the mechanical force through a dry friction two-plate clutch with hydraulic drive enters the 5-speed gearbox. All programs, except the first, are equipped with synchronizers.

Increased patency through the differential lock

Differential BTR-80 has been improved compared with the BTR-70. From the gearbox moment is transmitted to the two-speed transfer case. Differential distribution is performed in two streams: on the first, third and second-fourth bridges of the BTR-80. The locking of the center differential is forced, it works in difficult road conditions. In this case, the downshift and differential lock occurs only when the front axles are engaged. To increase the service life and avoid damage during overloads, a transfer sleeve is provided in the transfer case that limits the limiting moment.

Vitality BTR-80

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The armored personnel carrier has bullet-resistant tires with adjustable pressure. After all, it depends on the mobility how much this technique will live on the battlefield. The device BTR-80 is such that the failure of one or two wheels will not stop it. The technical characteristics of even an anti-tank mine are such that the energy of an explosion will damage only one wheel, and the anti-personnel armored vehicle of this model is not at all terrible.

The desire to protect the crew is understandable, but the thicker the armor, the heavier the car and the slower it moves. The description of the BTR-80 makes it possible to recognize in it the features of the BTR-70, the differences in appearance are minor, especially for those who do not understand military technology. The BTR-80 has a longer hull and slightly improved armor. Even in this case, the mass increased by 18 percent - to 13, 600 kg. Due to changes in hodovke and in the engine mobility remains the same. Cruising, thanks to a diesel engine, increased to 600 km on the highway.

Increased firepower technology at the expense of the crew. Shooting ports in the sides of the hull deployed in the direction of the front hemisphere, also appeared embrasure, allowing the commander to fire.

Movement on water

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Amphibious car is easy to distinguish by a raised nose, such as that of the BTR-80. The photo above shows the process of disembarking the ship. In the background, the second car floats, and the first has already reached the shore. Operation of the BTR-80 when forcing a water barrier is simple. The design provides one water cannon with an axial pump, located in the rear part. Traffic control on the water by using the steering wheel. In addition to the two front axles that move on land, they help turn the rudders and the flap on the water. The armored personnel carrier is a heavy car, and it didn’t do without power steering.

Initially, the BTR-80 was conceived without a water cannon, but the command of the Navy needed a machine capable of parachuting from ships and adapted to the needs of the marines. Marine units - from assault troops to command communications - all are on the BTR-80.

Equipment BTR-80

The technical characteristics of the BTR-70 were required to expand to adapt to the conditions of modern warfare. The BPU-1 turret machine gun installation was installed on the BTR-80, the vertical pointing angle of which is 60 degrees. Coupled with an optical sight 1PZ-2, it allows anti-aircraft fire. Like the ninja from the movies, the BTR-80 can create a smoke screen and escape: for this, the 902V system, which consists of six grenade launchers, is installed on the roof.

At first, the armored personnel carrier, like its predecessor, was armed with KPVT coupled with a PCT.

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During the creation of this technique, Afghanistan was the main testing ground for use, however, the designers took care of the conduct of the battle in a cold climate. At temperatures from -5 to -25 o C, a preheater is provided, arranged according to the principle of an electric torch device. When the engine is heated, a flame is formed from the combustion of a diesel engine, which also raises the temperature.

Initially available in the BTR radio station R-123 was replaced by a newer and more efficient P-163-50U.

BTR-80 with an automatic gun

In 1994, the BTR-80A armored personnel carrier modification was put into service. The assault vehicle was first equipped with a 30-mm automatic 2A72, ammunition in 300 shells. Such a gun is used on infantry and airborne combat vehicles, as well as on Ka-50, Ka-52 and Mi-28 helicopters. 120 mm tank armor is able to pierce a line of eight projectiles from such a BTR-80 gun.

The technical characteristics of the new tower make it possible to hit targets with a high angle of elevation - up to 70 degrees. Shot range - up to 4 km. The same PKT caliber 7.62 with 2000 cartridges is paired with the gun. All weapons are located outside the habitable compartment so that the powder gases do not enter the premises. For firing at night, the night vision sight TPN-3-42 Kristall was installed, the range of aimed shooting with its use was up to 900 m.

Other modifications of the BTR-80

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The characteristics of the armored personnel carrier allow its further improvement. For the needs of the internal forces, the BTR-80S was developed, having a 14.5-mm KVTT cannon instead of an automatic gun. Photographs of OSNAZ divisions always depict this technique.

The BTR-80M was developed after a fire at the Gorky Automobile Plant. Nobody expected that production and equipment would be restored in less than a year, so they used a weaker engine YMZ-238, but KI-128 tires are more resistant to damage.

For field command posts, several variations of command and staff vehicles were developed, for example, the BTR-80K equipped with an additional communication device. Machines were also created for controlling artillery and establishing communications, having large-sized antennas instead of weapons. There is even a self-propelled howitzer with a 120-millimeter gun.

Cumulative anti-tank shells - a real scourge for armored vehicles. As a result, armored personnel carriers began to equip with mesh screens, which also protect against bullets of large caliber. There is experience in installing dynamic protection on the BTR-80, and the chassis begin to cover the screens of the T-72.

Modifications based on the BTR-80 are also being created in other countries.

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