- Concept of genre
- Types of journalism genres
- Journalistic style
- Features of newspaper genres
- The note
- Feature article
Journalism is a diverse activity that is reflected in the many genres used. The newspaper is the oldest type of media, therefore the genre journalism system was formed in newspaper journalism. Worked out the basic techniques and methods of conveying information to readers. Today, newspapers are changing, trying to keep up with the times. Therefore, there are new types of newspapers - electronic. They will also have new genres. And we will talk about the traditional types of newspaper genres and their features.
Concept of genre
In any form of art, a genre is a stable form of a work. In journalism, the genre is a set of stylistic and plot characteristics, as well as features of the presentation of information. In the theory of journalism, there are various types of newspaper genres that differ in the volume of the text and the way in which facts are transmitted and coverage of events.
Despite the selection of different genre forms, today you can see that there is a mixture of genres, and in their pure form, they are found less and less. Genres are the result of the historical evolution of journalistic forms. And it is clear that this process has not ended, today the crystallization of new forms continues. However, the classical typology continues to be relevant today.
Types of journalism genres
There is a classical approach to distinguishing types of newspaper and journalistic genres, it highlights informational, analytical, and artistic and journalistic types. There are also author's classifications, in which theorists place emphasis on other characteristics of newspaper texts.
L. Kroychik proposes to divide genres into operational news, which are created "hot on the heels of" events, research and news, in which the event is analyzed and the journalist formulates his opinion and attitude to the event, operational research, in which the authors also analyze the fact, but do it right in the course of covering the event, research-shaped, where the results of reflections and author's analysis appear in a peculiar artistic form, and research texts, which set forth the author’s thought, journalist's thoughts about the event.
S. Gurevich suggests a completely different approach to identifying journalistic genres. In its typology there are news-informational, dialogical, situational-analytical, epistolary and artistic-publicistic varieties.
The public sphere, the activities of the media serves a special language style, called journalistic. Its main features are:
- The use of different-style vocabulary (literary, socio-political, colloquial, scientific, professional).
- The use of expressive-emotional language means (tropes, emotive vocabulary, stylistic figures, expressive syntax, diminutive suffixes, etc.).
- The use of intonation means expressing emotions (exclamations, rhetorical questions, designs with a dash and ellipsis).
The tasks of the journalistic style is the transfer of the image, emotions, impact on the audience. This style is reflected in the system of journalistic genres. In domestic journalism, it is customary to talk about the special stylistics of newspaper genres. This type of journalistic style is used to influence the broad masses, to transmit information to different segments of the population, and in this connection a language with a special functionality is formed.
It is not in vain that researchers note that working in a newspaper leads to the fact that the journalist begins to express himself with cliches. This means that it was influenced by the newspaper style of presentation. However, the authors, along with the possession of this style, must maintain their individual, recognizable style. It manifests itself in the fact that journalists often work in various genres.
Features of newspaper genres
The newspaper is designed to quickly inform people about current events. Signs of the newspaper as the media are:
- Relevance. The newspaper should cover the events that are interesting to the reader, which in some way affect his life.
- Periodicity. The newspaper should come out with a given regularity, usually the most frequently produced journalistic publication. It is customary to talk about daily and weekly newspapers.
- Publicity or accessibility. The newspaper is designed for a wide, non-segmented audience. Of course, there are newspapers for relatively narrow audiences - Teacher's or Literary. But they are also often read by the general public. And newspaper and magazine genres should take into account this feature in the first place.
- Official. Newspapers present the point of view of their founder, often they are administrative and government bodies. Therefore, the information in the newspaper is an official shade.
The most important of the informational newspaper genres of journalism is a note. Its function is to quickly and efficiently convey information to the reader about any event. It does not imply any thoughts of the author, expressing his own opinion. It is important to transfer information promptly and objectively.
Another distinctive feature of this genre is a small amount, it is not more than 2 thousand characters. The structure of a note is usually subject to answers to the main questions: what, where and when it happened. The author is not interested in the causes and consequences of the event, which he talks about.
Another informational newspaper genre is an interview. This is a conversation with a person recorded by a journalist for any reason. The journalist here acts not just as a recording device, his task is to get interesting information from his interlocutor. The art of the interviewer is the ability to ask an interesting question and create a special, confidential atmosphere in the dialogue.
The task of the interview (as a newspaper genre) is to find and convey to readers the point of view of some interesting person on a particular issue. It is important that the opinion of this person is relevant to the audience. Interviews are of several types: informative, expert, portrait, problem. There are formal and informal interviews, detailed and brief.
The next informational newspaper genre is a reportage. It is also extremely popular because it allows you to receive information from an eyewitness event. In journalism, there is even a separate specialization: a reporter is a person who is only engaged in the creation of reportage materials. Signs of the genre of the report is its relevance and efficiency.
No one is interested in reading a report about events of bygone years, at least in a newspaper. The reporter must create a dynamic and interesting material, he can express his opinion about the event, talk about his feelings and impressions. After all, the main task of the report is to create a presence effect for the reader.
And the latest newspaper genre is a report. This is usually a large detailed material that tells about the course of an event: a congress, a marathon, or a conference. It can be interspersed with elements of reporting and interviews. The objective of the report is to tell objectively and promptly how the event took place. The journalist must observe objectivity, not express his opinion about what is happening. There are several types of reports: analytical, thematic, direct information. The first two allow the statement by a journalist of his point of view to a limited extent.
The main representative of analytical genres in journalism is the article. Distinctive features of this form of journalistic texts are small or medium volume, a neutral style of presentation, objectivity and reasoning. The author conveys his thoughts about the event, looking for causes and consequences, understands the significance of the event. In journalism, there are problematic, informational, analytical, advertising, review and artistic and journalistic articles. In them, the journalist can express his point of view, but on a par with other opinions, in order to observe the requirement of objectivity.
Separately, theorists distinguish such a genre as an editorial. It is intended to express the opinion of the editorial board and founder. That is why in Soviet times editorials were always filled with ideological information. The peculiarity of this article is that it is necessarily located on the front page of the newspaper. This underlines the importance and relevance of the material. In such publications there can be no personal opinion of the author, it is always an impersonal, collective position. The most acute events of the day are always the occasion for writing editorials.
A special analytical genre is correspondence. Her task is to highlight new trends and phenomena in public life. This journalistic text may converge in its features with a report or an essay, depending on the task of the author. In correspondence, the journalist must comply with the requirements of efficiency, relevance and objectivity. This genre is represented by informational or analytical varieties.
The artistic and publicistic genres of newspaper texts include an essay. This is a very variable and common form. His task is not only to tell readers about the event, but also to reveal its social significance. This genre comes close to fiction tests.
The essays must have plots, characters, the author in artistic form tells about the event and reveals its characteristics through the created images. There are many types of essays: portrait, problem, travel. It is not in vain that they often talk about sketching literature, and there is even such a specialization - an essayist in which many prominent writers worked: K. Paustovsky, M. Prishvin, E. Hemingway.
Also, newspaper genres include another special form of journalistic texts - feuilleton. In it, the journalist in a satirical form exposes social vices. He belongs to the group of literary and journalistic genres. In feuilletons, the author conveys his attitude to the situation being criticized in a bright, expressive manner. In feuilletons a sharp and expressive language is used to create characters.