Journalism is ... History and the basics of journalism. Faculty of Journalism

Anonim

The profession of a journalist can be obtained in a huge number of universities around the world. However, its specificity is learned precisely in practice, it is comprehended through experience. The choice of the university depends on which media area the applicant is going to study.

There is such a job - to know about everything

Is journalism a service or a vocation? Of course, first of all, it is a profession where you need your skills and abilities. The journalist can write an essay, get an interview, make a press release.

Image

Also this specialty is distinguished by constant contact with people from different areas. Therefore, the real press employee is able to inspire confidence in them and receive the necessary information. This is a detective, and an actor, and a writer in one person. Of course, such a multifaceted activity leads to a rapid expansion of horizons.

Walking notebook

This feather shark can be recognized by a special look. The press worker looks at the world eagerly, looking around for an info guide, a source of raw data for the material and new social contacts. This, of course, does not mean that the famous prototype named Paparazzi from the cinema Fellini is a true journalist, demonstrating tactlessness and intrusiveness. But without quickness in the media nothing to do. Indeed, as Vladimir Pozner expressed himself in the program “School of Gossip, ” journalism is magic that is present only in the present moment.

In order to make good material, the browser must prepare information, compile a review and publication with correctly placed accents. Therefore, very often the press can be recognized by a notepad or a newfangled gadget that performs the same function.

A talented media employee is able to present the news so that it is impossible not to read. It is very important in the news work to clearly present the picture of what is happening, look at the heterogeneity of materials and fix the attention of the audience on the main idea with the help of mastery of the word.

Of course, many people believe that journalism is the younger sister of literature, and it relates to art as a painter to painting. However, very often talented writers choose this path, at the same time writing wonderful stories and novels. It is possible that it was the modern way of life that made recluse-writers of people leading socially active lives. Now the author is looking for his heroes not in the inner space, but in the crowd of onlookers. This is a brief portrait of a modern press employee.

Fundamentals of journalism: material preparation

News - this is the magic essence, obtained as a result of the works of a professional reviewer. Information is important in the media. Facts and real events make the material interesting. There is no room for speculations and thoughts in the news press. Any journalism institute sharpens from its students the ability to separate the most important from the secondary. Students are trained to derive the main idea, to find important information during the investigation, to process the data and it is interesting to present the material. These are the basics of journalism.

Image

Students also study various areas that really differ from each other in terms of tricks and style of presentation. Newspaper journalism, radio and television journalism require different skills.

In addition, there are areas such as photojournalism and advertising. However, almost all of them require a good command of the word. In order to write articles for a print edition, it is important to be able to succinctly state the facts, for the radio you need a virtuoso oral speech, for television activities, in addition to the above, you need to be able to work in the frame.

I have a spacesuit - ready to travel

Very often, adolescents ignite a desire to master the profession of a press employee, but they do not conduct their own journalistic investigations into the appropriate educational institution. The choice, as a rule, falls on the closest to the house or prestigious university. However, it is necessary to take into account the specifics of the department.

In Russia, in almost every major city there is an opportunity to get a high-quality philological education. However, there are a number of universities that provide highly specialized education in the area that is interesting to the entrant.

Of course, this is the journalism of Moscow State University, the faculties of journalism of MGIMO and the Institute of Massmedia of the RSUH.

International journalism appeared at MGIMO in 1968. As for the Institute of Mass Media, the RSUH sets itself the task of teaching a high-level humanitarian education under the conditions dictated by the information age.

MSU is the basis of journalism in our country, so the faculty will be considered in more detail.

All graduates of the three largest universities have the opportunity to learn how to independently create media materials, as well as to freely navigate information, to find it where an ordinary person is unable. Not every faculty of journalism provides an opportunity to get extensive practice, as it happens in the largest universities of the country.

Foreign universities

The most authoritative faculties and universities in the world that train journalists have their own unique learning traditions. But if earlier the vector of education was chosen based on the internal needs of the country, now, in the era of globalization, classical schools are increasingly making programs more universal. And while students are given the opportunity to get a unique experience. It is for the sake of acquiring professional skills from media gurus that students overcome inconceivable distances and language barriers.

The School of Journalism, which is considered one of the most reputable, is located at Columbia University, USA. Here is the training of masters of the pen in all major areas.

Image

For journalism in the field of law and economics it is worth going to Carlos III University of Madrid. The basics of writing skills are taught here through the prism of the social sciences and humanities.

Scientific journalists get the necessary experience at the Dortmund University of Germany. Here are taught the natural and technical disciplines, graduates protect scientific work on selected issues. In addition, technical press masters are trained in Germany. The Fachhochschule Bonn-Rein-Sieg deals with this. Informatics, exact sciences, automated control techniques are taught here, as is the history of journalism or the style of the native language.

At the University of Australia, the University of Western Sydney is studying business, sports and political journalism. But the media workers who specialize in the analysis of art, are sent to study skill at the New Zealand Institute of Technology. They also prepare musicians, photographers and designers. Thus, in New Zealand they produce not just highly specialized journalists, but professionals at the junction of two areas. The second example of the combined study is at the University of Navarre in Spain. Here students specialize in philosophy, and after graduation they become journalistic analysts.

The internship of students in other language environments is still relevant abroad. For example, the school of journalism in France practices student trips to Italy. In Italy, a different culture, a different experience for students. As a result, special journalism is taught here. Universities around the world offer their programs and requirements.

Window to Europe

Such Russian universities as MGIMO, RGGU and MSU send their students abroad. The Institute of Journalism provides the opportunity to gain foreign experience. The main condition for this is the presence of a rigorous language exam and several years of study at the basic university.

Image

If the entrant himself is looking for journalism courses, then all the paperwork is borne by him. In addition to the above tests, you must provide an autobiography, a certificate of financial solvency, letters of recommendation and motivational letters. It is advisable to prepare a portfolio of works published in the media. Registration fee, housing payment and specialized payments - all this is paid privately. At the same time, a part of foreign universities designate a scholarship to foreign citizens and provide a hostel.

News hawkers

Sometimes journalists are called representatives of the second ancient profession, hinting at the ability to present news in the light in which they are ordered. However, in Russia, the press staff appeared relatively recently - in the nineteenth century.

The name is taken from French and means "diary" (from journal). Moscow publicists were engaged in periodicals. Already under the tsars Mikhail Fedorovich and Alexei Mikhailovich, the first manuscripts Kuranty and Vestovye Letters were published, translations from European newspapers were published mainly in them: German, Swedish, Polish and Dutch. News was read to the king and the approximate boyars. And in 1702, the first test Vedomosti came out, again consisting of foreign news. Peter the Great himself found time in his schedule to select the most valuable information. In 1703, the edition began to appear regularly on Tuesdays and Fridays.

Thus, the news peddlers appeared a long time ago, but journalism was able to develop only after the appearance of the printing press and the general public's need for fresh information. Such a need arose in the 17th century, the era of the technical boom, when manufacturers began to monitor relevant economic information. The merchants needed to know in which countries it was possible to buy materials and where new machines for production appeared. In addition, the publications reported prices, which made it possible to learn about the competitive market.

In the same period, a great interest appears in the media among state structures. Now the press is the "riding horse" of ideological, religious and political games.

The history of journalism is closely related to the general literacy rate of the population.

Image

A great contribution to the domestic news industry was made by Mikhail Lomonosov. His work "Discourses on the duties of journalists" laid the vector for the development of the profession in the 19-20th centuries. It was on the basis of the scientist's ideas about what the national press should be like that the work of the anthologies "Kolokol", "Moscow Telegraph", "Domestic Notes", "Polar Star" was built.

The October Revolution gave birth to the New World and other publications, including Izvestia, Komsomolskaya Pravda, and Soviet Russia.

Heritage of the fatherland

One of the largest faculties of the country that train journalists is the journalism faculty of Moscow State University. The faculty has 14 departments, among which are: a department of foreign journalism and literature, a department of the history of domestic media, literary and artistic criticism and journalism, stylistics of the native language, television and radio broadcasting, newspaper technology, new media and communication theory and others. The training of photojournalists, editors, and Internet authors is also carried out immediately. The Faculty of Journalism of Moscow State University conducts training in various forms: day, evening and correspondence. However, in recent years, recruitment for correspondence directions has been suspended. The daily form includes newspaper, photo, radio, television, international, sports, and business journalism.

Major specialties, such as newspaper, television, radio journalism, as well as editorial and public relations, can also be studied at the evening department.

All students learn social, political, philological and specialized disciplines. Special attention is paid to the study of technology and methods of creative activity, the preparation of materials for television programs and radio programs, the organization of the work of the editorial team, the acquisition of skills in publishing, the creation and promotion of networked media, and convergent media content.

Image

The faculty has a huge scientific and educational platform represented by the Ibero-American Center for the Study of Journalism and Culture, the Free Russian-German Institute of Journalism, the Center for Media Studies of Scandinavia and Finland, the Franco-Russian, Russian-Japanese, Italian-Russian, Russian-Indian, Russian -Chinese centers. Students can master foreign languages ​​to perfection, study media systems and principles of different states, and participate in foreign exchange programs offered by the Faculty of Journalism. The training program is constantly being improved.

60 years long story

The faculty of journalism of the Moscow State University in 60 years have graduated more than 20, 000 people. Among them are the notorious Vladislav Listyev and Anna Politkovskaya. From modern media stars, it is worth remembering Marianna Maksimovskaya, Ernest Mackevičius and Alexei Pivovarov from entertainment media - these are Evelina Khromchenko, Ksenia Strizh, Dana Borisova, Tutta Larson, Andrei Malakhov. The famous writer Dmitry Bykov and poetess Vera Polozkova also studied there.

Not only graduates are impressed, but also the composition of teachers. Thus, the journalism of Moscow State University is represented by more than 165 professors. There are 97 associate professors, candidates of science and 32 professors among the researchers. Many graduates who graduated from the journalism department continue to teach here. Among them are radio host Svetlana Sorokina, music critic Artemy Troitsky, and chief editor of the Echo of Moscow program, Alexei Venediktov. For all these people, journalism is more than a profession, this is a vocation; therefore, learning from them means not only learning the basics of mastery, but also revealing one’s own talent.

The epicenter of the student universe

It is believed that the monument to Lomonosov is not only the history of journalism, but also a place of strength for writers and writers. Here come young students, recent graduates, here is the place of gatherings for the journalist.

All studies at the university are saturated with a special atmosphere, because students spend together a lot of time. They issue an optional edition of the Journalist, prepare internal programs and programs themselves, and actively develop media outlets.

The circles of journalism are primarily creative workshops and studios. Here the guys learn to defend their opinions, listen to other points of view and give comments to each other at the level of high quality feedback.

Surrender to become your

In order to study at MSU, the university, like any other university of journalism, offers applicants to pass the entrance test. Today they include the Unified State Exam in Russian and Literature. In addition, you must also pass foreign languages, among which, in addition to English and German, take an exam in French and Spanish.

Literature is considered a profile subject, the results of the creative competition are also taken into account.

The admission itself is carried out in two stages. At the first, the best creative works are selected, and at the second, the choice is made in favor of those applicants who have adequately withstood the interview.

For bachelors the opportunity to enroll in the magistracy (training period - 2 years). It is enough to withstand the interview and provide a diploma of higher education.

Image

The duration of training for the second higher education is 3 years. The tests here are the same as when enrolling in the magistracy. Training takes place on a fee basis, but anyone can attend professorial lectures and master classes from leading professionals, including practicing journalists from leading media resources.

Young journalist

For schoolchildren of the 9th and 10th grades who want to prepare for the entrance tests, courses of journalism are conducted. In order to take part in training on the program of courses, you need to pass a test task. Also, applicants can attend another institution - "School of the Young Journalist." For classes in the studio school you need to write an essay and pass the interview. Journalism courses last 9 months. In the school-studio, the duration of study is 1 or 2 years. Journalism is a vocation, and it’s better understood at a young age.

They say that a journalist, a writer, a critic is not born, but becomes. However, if since childhood you have noticed the love of pen and paper, the ability to compose and convey it to others, express your opinion and listen to someone else's, then you are definitely on the way with feather sharks.

Interesting Articles

Beautiful quotes about fashion and style. Quotes fashion designers on fashion

Tourist Day - a world holiday travelers

Composer Nikita Bogoslovsky: biography, personal life, photo

Is offshore zone a new business opportunity or a place of diversion of national capital?