- short biography
- The beginning of a creative way
- From Vologda to Petersburg
- Books Kruglov
- Writer's diary
On the wave of revolutionary sentiments of the second half of the XIX century, a prominent place in literature was occupied by works whose authors are little known. Partly because many of them were not democrats, but, nevertheless, their work carried in itself educational ideals. Among them stands out the name of the Russian writer, poet, publisher and journalist Kruglov Alexander Vasilyevich.
Alexander Kruglov was born in Veliky Ustyug on June 5, 1853 in the family of the superintendent of schools. Shortly after the birth of his son, his father died. The childhood of the future writer was spent in the grandfather's house - in Vologda.
The first poems Kruglov began to write with the beginning of admission to the gymnasium, which adversely affected his marks. Under the influence of general fad, his views constantly changed. It seemed to be woven out of controversy. In high school, he became a “thinking realist, ” actively criticizing Pushkin, whom he adored, opposing Nekrasov to him. In those years, high school students were fierce ideological disputes and expressed their opinion on the pages of manuscripts.
Kruglov took a hot part in this. He expounded the ideas inherent in the supporters of liberal movements, and copied the writers of the “Russian word”. One of them, a publicist and participant in the revolutionary movement N. Shelgunov, was serving a link in the Vologda province. Soon the famous Russian sociologist and revolutionary P. L. Lavrov was exiled there. Alexander Kruglov (photo above) dared to send his poems to him. Pyotr Lavrovich did not approve of poetry to the press, but advised the novice poet to leave no poetry.
The beginning of a creative way
He made his debut in prose Kruglov. The first correspondence and a story about Vologda life began to be published in 1870 on the pages of the “Russian Chronicle”, “Iskra” and “The Week”. The essay on M. V. Lomonosov was published as a separate brochure for schoolchildren. At that time, Alexander was still a high school student. All of Vologda soon knew about the birth of a new writer.
After graduation, an accomplished journalist, Alexander Kruglov, felt the need for further education. He began to prepare himself for teaching and entered the pedagogical courses. Soon the young man left them and in 1872 for the first time left his native Vologda. Friends found a place for him in the bookstore, and Kruglov went to St. Petersburg. He was denied work. Not successful and the search for service in the editorial. Having borrowed money for the road, Kruglov left back. During the year he worked as an official in the State Chamber, proof-reader in a printing house, and a tutor in private houses.
From Vologda to Petersburg
In the fall of 1873, he again went to the capital. This time the service worked out well - he got a job at the library at the bookstore. Nights wrote articles and poems for pedagogical and children's magazines. For literary earnings, he could live comfortably, but the illness of a loved one consumed all his means. I had to live in slums and eat in folk canteens. To his patience came the limit, and Alexander Kruglov turned to the "Society for the Welfare of Writers."
A few days later a representative of the Literary Fund N. A. Nekrasov came to Kruglov. Novice writer assigned benefits. At the same time, a significant meeting for Kruglov took place with F. M. Dostoevsky. He handed him the manuscript of the first novel. Fyodor Mikhailovich severely criticized her and advised the author to accumulate life experience. Kruglov destroyed his essay and continued to write essays. He was regularly published in the “Observer”, “Vestnik Evropy”, “Dele”, “Exchange Gazette”, “Historical Vestnik” and several children's magazines. Dostoevsky became a teacher for the young writer and had a great influence on his creative activity.
In 1879, one after another stories of Alexander Kruglov began to appear in the "Russian Speech". L.N. Tolstoy wrote in a journal and asked to support the young writer. F. M. Dostoevsky also approved a talented author, and he acquired a literary name. Soon Kruglov left St. Petersburg. He traveled and lived in the village, wrote and published a lot in almost all metropolitan newspapers and magazines. One after another, his books began to appear.
In total, Alexander Kruglov has written over one hundred books. Books for children and young people enjoyed great success, and they sustained several editions during the writer's lifetime:
- 1885 - essays and stories "Living Souls" and "Children of the Forest."
- 1886 - "Provincial Correspondents".
- 1887 - "Lord of the land".
- 1889 - “Ivan Ivanovich and Company”, “From the Golden Childhood”.
- 1890 - “Bolshak” and “Kotofey Kotofeevich”, “Forest People” and “Gubernskiy Fairy Tales”.
- 1892 - "Pictures of Russian life", "Evening leisure", "Different roads".
- 1895 - 1901 - “Under the Wheel of Life, ” “Wonderful Happiness, ” “His Own are Aliens, ” “Ivanushka the Fool, ” “Brilliant Humor, ” “New Star, ” “Awareness Awakened, ” “Lord Peasants” and others.
Alexander Kruglov was among the most popular children's writers. He wrote books for kids:
- 1880 - “Christmas Tree Gift”, “Winter Leisure”.
- 1888 - "For me, kids."
- 1898 - "Little readers."
Kruglov's poems were included in the collections:
- 1894 - "To Children".
- 1897 - "Poems".
- 1901 - “Love and truth. Spiritual motifs.
- 1912 - Evening Songs.
In the 90s, Alexander Kruglov withdrew from Narodism and moved to Orthodox monarchical positions. It was published in the Orthodox journals "Dearly Useful Reading", "Russian Pilgrim", "Parish Life, " Helmsman ". Later, in 1901 and 1904, his articles were published in separate collections “From the diary of an Orthodox layman” and “Intimate Speeches”.
From 1907 to 1914, Alexander Vasilyevich published the journal Diary of a Writer, since 1910 - The Svetoch and Diary of a Writer. His wife, A. N. Doganovich, a well-known author of children's literature, helped him to edit a magazine. On the pages of the publication Kruglov criticized the revolutionary movement and democratic literature.
The writer died on October 9, 1915 in Sergiev Posad. Until the last days, he did not change the teachings of his teacher Dostoevsky: the writer must be free from parties, serve his country and people, be a believer and a moral person.