- The relationship of the basic properties of information
- Information and reality
- What does “objective information” mean?
- Examples of objective information
- What prevents objectivity
- How to increase the objectivity of information?
- When objectivity is not needed
- Objectivity and authenticity
- Objectivity and relevance
Information surrounds us everywhere. It is presented in different forms, obtained from a variety of sources and serves a variety of purposes. Information exchange is needed by society for education and management. Information as the most important component of modern life has certain properties that characterize it from the qualitative side. These properties depend on various factors and determine the possibilities of its use.
The relationship of the basic properties of information
Thanks to the information exchange, the successful functioning of social relations is carried out: knowledge is accumulated, stored and distributed among members of society, and management takes place in various social structures. However, the effective use of information is impossible without an understanding of its properties and the ability to use them.
Proper assessment of incoming data is especially important in the field of management and in situations involving decision-making. Management mistakes can lead to man-made disasters and social explosions. Therefore, in this area it is important to distinguish and correctly use the properties of information. They are presented in the table.
|Relevance||Irrelevance (outdated information)|
|Adequacy (compliance with goals)||Inadequacy|
Different properties of information may in some cases overlap and complement each other, but this does not mean complete consistency between them. You need to be able to distinguish between seemingly similar properties, when you have examples of objective information and adequate, reliable and objective, etc.
Since many properties are interrelated, it is sometimes possible to compensate for the insufficiency of one by the redundancy of the other.
Information and reality
In this context, objective and non-objective information is distinguished. The objectivity of the information reflects the extent to which this information correlates with reality.
Reality is all that exists in nature, regardless of the will or desire of man. For example, in the Middle Ages, most people preferred to believe that the Earth was flat. However, neither the desires of the uneducated masses, nor the will of the omnipotent Church could not cancel the objectively existing fact that the globe has a completely different, much more complex form.
Thus, information becomes biased when reflected in the individual consciousness and undergoes changes of varying degrees. These changes depend on the characteristics of a particular person: education, life experience, psychological characteristics of a person.
What does “objective information” mean?
Objective information can only be called that which reflects the real picture of reality, regardless of someone’s personal opinion or assessment.
Why do people need her so much? The fact is that at this stage of human development, nothing gives such an accurate picture of the surrounding world as the most objective data. This is necessary in the field of education and management. If there is no objectivity, then knowledge cannot be considered scientific, and management cannot be effective.
How to get objective information? For this purpose, serviceable and highly accurate instruments, sensors and other measuring devices are used. If we are talking about scientific information, it is important that it be reproducible. Reproducibility in science means the ability to obtain the same data in any other place and with other instruments. If the results of a scientific search are reproducible, then such data is considered objective. Based on this criterion, physics, psychology and astronomy are objective sciences, but esoterics, parapsychology and astrology are not.
Examples of objective information
As such examples may be the data of scientific research, testimony of good devices. Especially vivid picture is given by examples of objective and biased information, put together for comparison. “It's warm outside” is biased information, which is an individual’s judgmental judgment. At the same time, the information “on the street +20 o C” can be considered objective, since a measuring instrument, a thermometer, was used to obtain it. Similar examples are presented in the table below.
|Biased information||Objective information|
|The mountain is low.||The height of the mountain is 1300 m.|
|Bread is cheap.||One loaf of bread costs 20 rubles.|
|Shooter accurate.||Number of hits arrow: 8 out of 10.|
|This actress is the most beautiful.||
This actress was recognized as the most beautiful reader of the magazine N.
Thus, subjective information carries an element of evaluation, while objective information simply conveys facts that exist in the real world. You can control the degree of objectivity, as illustrated by the above examples of information. Objective and biased can be any set of data. It all depends on how accurately they convey the surrounding reality and how little they depend on someone's personal judgments or desires.
What prevents objectivity
For all the importance of this property of information, the objective component is almost never achievable by 100%. This is due to the dual nature of any information. On the one hand, information exists and is stored in the form of data that is in themselves material and objective. But on the other hand, when transmitting information, various information methods are used, which are subjective in their nature, since they are connected directly with the sources and consumers of information. Thus, the information process is a twofold phenomenon, and the information transmitted as a result may have a different degree of objectivity, depending on the predominance of one of the two components: methods and data.
How to increase the objectivity of information?
The main way is considered to increase the completeness of information. For this purpose, a jury of creative and sports competitions, examination boards and jury courts are being created. The more independent arbitrators who are not related to each other informational links, the higher the objectivity of the information - in this case, the assessment or verdict.
Also, to obtain information closest to reality, it is necessary to use objective sources of information. If we are talking about research, then preference should be given to those results that have been confirmed by several scientists. If this is a media message, then first of all you need to find the original source of information, and also be sure to compare how the same fact is presented in different editions. Psychologists emphasize the advantage of the text over videos: while reading, the ability to think critically is better preserved, which is an essential tool for obtaining objective data.
When objectivity is not needed
The above examples of objective information may suggest that a person always seeks to obtain this kind of information about the world. But this is far from the case. For example, the artistic perception of the world does not imply objectivity. Any creative work in one degree or another is the embodiment of the subjective personal view of the author. Of course, creations in the realism genre represent a multitude of objective details, but on the whole the work remains artistic and cannot be put on a par with scientific research.
Creative works in the genre of cubism, symbolism, impressionism, primitivism, etc., are even less similar to examples of objective information, since they reflect not the surrounding reality itself, but various approaches and methods of its depiction. The authors of such works sacrifice objectivity in favor of expressiveness. Or, if we speak in the language of computer science, the data is put in second place, and in the first - the method of transmitting information.
Objectivity and authenticity
Information may be distorted for various reasons. The degree of its undistortedness is called authenticity. This property must be distinguished from objectivity. Of course, biased information cannot be considered reliable. However, inaccurate information may be objective, provided that the degree of uncertainty is accurately known. In the modeling of objects and phenomena, objective, but unreliable information is used. Examples: mathematical and physical constants (number "pi", acceleration of gravity), objects on maps, exact number of particles, distances in space, etc. Scientists operate on all the listed data taking into account errors. Thanks to this information can be considered objective.
Objectivity and relevance
If the information corresponds to the current time, then it is relevant. Aging information occurs at different speeds and depends on its type. For example, data on the monitor of an air traffic controller loses its relevance very quickly, and information on the structure of the earth's crust is much slower.
If we talk about objective and up-to-date information, examples can be found in transportation schedules, weather reports, current news, currency quotes, traffic conditions, and the like, which have value at a particular moment.
Knowledge and understanding of the properties of information, as well as the ability to use them - a pledge of the effectiveness of any activity in society.