- When were epaulettes introduced?
- Who is wearing shoulder straps in Russia today?
- Who are the generals?
- What are the general epaulets?
- What colors are used?
- Other distinctive means
- What are the epaulets of police generals?
- Insignia in the police sample of 2011 and 2014
Generals in the Russian Federation, as in any other country, belong to the highest officers. To designate the highest ranks in the military and security forces of Russia, general shoulder straps are used.
When were epaulettes introduced?
In the history of Russia, epaulettes began to be used during the years of Peter I. Initially, they were intended only for soldiers. Over time, they began to use the officers. Since there was no uniform sample, they did not perform the distinctive function. It was possible to correct this by introducing different color forms: each battalion or regiment had its own color scheme. Officer epaulets had a hexagonal shape, and the soldiers - pentagonal. Generals shoulder straps in those days were a lace of golden or silver color without stars. Similar insignia was used until 1917.
After the October Revolution, soldiers and general epaulets were canceled, because they were perceived as enemy in Soviet Russia. They were kept by the White Guards. The insignia became a counter-revolutionary symbol, and the officers who carried them were called “gold-hunters”. A similar situation persisted until the very beginning of the Great Patriotic War.
Who is wearing shoulder straps in Russia today?
Today, on the territory of the Russian Federation, as in some other states, the right to wear epaulets is not only the personnel of the Armed Forces. In the prosecutor's office, police, tax and environmental inspections, railway, sea, river and civil aviation, epaulets are used.
Who are the generals?
The rank of general belongs to the highest officer ranks, for each of which the corresponding general shoulder straps are provided. Titles, which used to differ from each other depending on the type of troops, today have become one. The Russian army provides for the presence of titles:
- Major General;
- lieutenant general;
- Colonel General;
What are the general epaulets?
After the Decree of the President of Russia in May 1994, a new uniform was introduced for army officers of the Russian Federation. The sizes, colors and shape of the epaulet were changed. Now they do not reach the collar of the jacket. The shoulder straps, both sewn and removable, have become hexagonal in shape. Their upper part contains a button that performs a decorative function. Today, shoulder straps are 50 mm wide and 150 mm long.
General stars on shoulder straps are located depending on the title in one vertical row:
- one star have epaulets of major general;
- the wearing of two stars is envisaged on the uniform of a lieutenant general;
- Colonel General wears three stars;
- general - four.
After 2013, in the Russian army, shoulder straps of all types began to be equipped with a combined arms emblem and one big star. In comparison with the star of the marshal, the star of the General of the Russian Army is smaller. But the title of Marshal in various arms of service was abandoned as early as 1993. The Marshall star, the badge of honor, adopted in 1981, was then canceled.
What colors are used?
After the adoption of the 1994 law, the dress uniform of the generals is equipped with epaulettes of golden color with embroidered stars, the diameter of which is 22 mm. In the land forces of the Russian Federation for the generals epaulets provided for the presence of a red border, for the Airborne Forces, VKS and aviation - blue.
Green uniform with a red border is sewn onto the daily uniform of the army generals. In the airborne troops and the military space forces of Russia, generals wear green shoulder straps with blue edging in everyday life. For aviation, wearing blue shoulder straps with a blue edging is envisaged. In field conditions the color is green. Green stars are sewn on them.
According to the charter, white shoulder straps are intended for white shirts. Golden stars are sewn on them.
On green shirts - epaulets green and golden stars. For aviation generals, wearing blue shirts and blue shoulder straps with gold-colored stars stitched is provided. For shirt shoulder straps, the generals of justice, veterinary and medical services must wear appropriate emblems. For everyday wear, generals use shoulder straps. Removable apply only to shirts.
Other distinctive means
The ranks of senior officers can be identified, not only using the stars, sewn on the general's shoulder straps. The photo below presents the features of the design of these distinctive means. July 31 in 2014, the President of the Russian Federation signed a decree on the creation of a new shoulder strap. Recognize the general of the army of the Russian Armed Forces, you can use the running edge.
The generals of the Russian army, he is red, the air force - blue. The ranks of the FSB generals on epaulets have a cornflower blue edging. There are red stars on the epaulets. The Federal Special Object Protection Service under the President of the Russian Federation also uses cornflower blue edging for generals. Golden stars are provided for these services. For generals epaulettes, a special texture is characteristic: even a field uniform is equipped with epaulettes embroidered with threads. This makes it possible to distinguish the three-star shoulder straps that the Colonel-General wears from the warrant officers. Their attachment to clothing is performed using a special coupling and half-lap.
When wearing a black leather jacket, generals apply shoulder straps - clutches.
What are the epaulets of police generals?
In appearance, the generals shoulder straps of the Ministry of Internal Affairs are almost the same as those of the army. In the police to the ranks of generals added postscript - not the “army”, and “police”. The availability of titles is provided:
- Major General Police;
- police lieutenant general;
- Colonel-General Police.
General of the Police of Russia - a special rank of the highest commanding staff. This title can be received by the Minister of the Interior of the Russian Federation. Today, Kolokoltsev VA received it. In the Ministry of the Interior, generals use shoulder straps on which large stars are sewn. On these shoulder straps there are no gaps.
Insignia in the police sample of 2011 and 2014
In 2011, the longitudinal axial line of the police general's chase was equipped with four stars and a red edging. Embroidered stars had a diameter of 22 mm. In 2014, the size of the stars increased to 4 cm. The red edge remained the same.
Often, on generals uniform, you can find the tag of FSUE “43 TsEPK” of the RF Ministry of Defense - the oldest Moscow enterprise engaged in individual tailoring of uniforms for senior officers.
The generals of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Federal Security Service, the Federal Protective Service, the prosecutor's office and the Russian Emergencies Ministry still use the casual production of this enterprise.