Canadian pine is an evergreen conifer with flat needles. Canadian hemlock

Anonim

Like many conifers, the name of these pines has changed several times. The first representatives of the genus became known to the botanists of Europe in the XVIII century. These were the heaps of North America. Around the same time, they received the name "hemlock".

Canadian Pine Description

Canadian Pine - evergreen coniferous tree with flat needles. Widely distributed in the eastern regions of North America. This family Pine, genus Tsuga. As an ornamental plant, a tree is grown worldwide. The genus Tsuga has eighteen species, many of which are considered subspecies or varieties.

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The Pine family is very diverse. It includes plants such as spruce, pine, cedar, larch, hemlock, fir. As a rule, these are trees, although there are shrub forms. Canadian pine is always a tree, but at the same time its shape and height vary considerably not only in different species, but also within one.

This evergreen, tall and slender tree, having a cone-shaped crown, which over the years becomes more uneven and wide, with thin hanging shoots, with bark covered with deep grooves. In old trees, it is painted in brown. The young - dark brown or reddish, scaly. The average height is 25 meters. The Canadian hemlock, the description and care of which we consider, very much resembles the Caroline variety, differs from it in narrower and smaller bumps.

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Needles

Canadian pine has small and flat needles, the length of which is up to 1.5 cm. It is slightly blunted, shiny, painted in dark green color, tapers at the top. In the center is a longitudinal groove. From the bottom, it has a weakly projecting keel and narrow strips. On shoots located comb.

Cones

They are oval, small, no more than two centimeters in length, painted in brownish-gray color. As a rule, cones hanging on the tree, ripening in the first year. When fully ripe, they do not fall apart, only the next year they fall.

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Seeds

They are smaller than other conifers. Resin glands are clearly visible on the surface. The plant propagates by seeds and cuttings.

Primary requirements

Like all conifers, hemlock is demanding on soil fertility and moisture. It does not tolerate drought, dry air. Usually does not tolerate transplant. It grows rather slowly, so there is no need for pruning. In the summer, in the garden, young Canadian pine needs regular and abundant watering. It is advisable to plant these trees near water bodies, but not in a swampy soil with stagnant moisture.

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Soil preparation

Planting (transplanting) plants is carried out only with a well-protected and compact earthy clod. For active development and good growth, the sapling needs a moist and slightly acidic soil, fertile. Stagnation of water is not allowed, which can lead to rotting of the roots and death of the young plant.

Canadian pine prefers a soil mixture consisting of leafy earth and sand in a 2: 1 ratio. Development on calcareous soils slows down.

Landing

It is best to land at the end of April or from the end of August until the first days of October. When planting, it is necessary to maintain the distance between seedlings from 80 to 150 cm. The landing pit should be about 75 cm deep. The root collar should not be buried - it should be at ground level. Take care of good drainage to avoid stagnant moisture. To do this, you can use crushed stone, coarse sand, expanded clay. The drainage layer must be at least fifteen centimeters.

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When planting should be added to the soil substrate "Kemira Universal" at the rate of two hundred grams per plant. Pre-fertilizer must be thoroughly mixed with the earth dug from the pit. Young plants need phosphorus. During the first six months after planting, it is necessary to feed the young plant with phosphate fertilizers. In the future, Canadian pine can do without them. Fallen needles rot and enrich the soil with organic matter.

Watering

Canadian pine is moisture-loving, it needs regular watering: take a bucket of water once a week for each plant over ten years. Since the tree does not tolerate the dryness of the air, it should be humidified with a hose at least once a month, and in hot, dry summers it is recommended to spray more frequently - two to three times a week. Young planting mulch peat layer (about five centimeters).

Preparing for the winter

These conifers older than two years of winter-hardy, but annual shoots frost can damage the ends. The first two years, young seedlings should be covered for the winter. This is usually done after the 10th of November with spruce and peat. Spring peat must be otgresti from trunks. Do not worry if in winter the needles turn red from frost - it will not harm the plant.

Is Canadian hemlock growing in the Moscow region?

Yes, only this variety is grown in the Moscow region. It is hardy and shade tolerant. Most specimens are characterized by dwarf growth and branches strongly hanging from the ground. One of the first in our market appeared the variety Jedelloh - Canadian dwarf hemlock. Description and care (rules) can be found in publications on landscape design, although we have reviewed the basics. For twenty years, the plant reaches a height of not more than one meter. It looks very nice hat with a light green needles, which hangs picturesquely, and with a funnel, located on the crown.

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Now there are about a dozen varieties suitable for cultivation in the Moscow region: Bennett, Cole's Prostrate, Pendula and others.

Canadian hemlock in landscape design

Thanks to its graceful crown, slender habit, falling branches, small bumps, color and crown shape, hemlock is a beautiful ornamental plant. It can be used in group and soliterny landings, for stony sites (creeping and dwarf varieties are suitable), for registration of sites near reservoirs. It is used for park, alley landings and hedges. Today in Russia, Canadian hemlock is rarely used in urban greening.

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Breeding

Like most conifers, the hemlock multiplies by seed and grafting. Full seeds ripen only in trees older than twenty years. In addition, during planting, no more than half of all seeds germinate.

Attempts to propagate by cutting are also approximately the same result, but it can be slightly improved by using a root growth stimulator.

Industrial applications

Since ancient times, Canadian hemlock was valued for its bark, which is the source of tannins. It is used in the leather industry. In addition, the bark is used in the production of natural red-brown dyes for leather and wool, making baskets.

Large-scale and uncontrollable bark harvesting led to a significant reduction in the hemlock forests. The decline in tannin production in the United States at the beginning of the last century due to the lack of raw materials and forced producers to look for alternative plant sources.

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In veterinary medicine

Essential oil obtained by steaming needles and branches of hemlock, is used to prepare ointments, which are successfully used in veterinary medicine. They have healing properties.

In medicine

Essential oils have antiseptic, antibacterial, diaphoretic, astringent and diuretic properties. They have antitussive and expectorant actions, relieve fatigue. In addition, drugs, which include essential oils of needles, can be used in the treatment of asthma, various infections, muscle or headache, stress state.

Cosmetics and food industry

Essential oil from Canadian hemlock is used (especially in the United States) to create perfume compositions that make up household air fresheners for housing, soap, detergents, bath baths, etc.

Tsugi oil is used to flavor soft drinks, ice cream, chewing gum. The buds of the plant (tips) are part of fine herbal teas and even original beers.

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