In the modern world there are two main forms of government: the monarchy and the republic. There are two types of monarchy: absolute and constitutional. In the first, power completely belongs to the reigning person or (in the case of the theocratic absolute monarchy) to the spiritual leader. In the second form, everything is a little different. Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which the constitution restricts the power of the monarch. In countries with a similar form of government, executive power belongs to the government, that is, the cabinet of ministers, and the legislative power - to the parliament, which is called differently in different countries.
Types of constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government that can be both dualistic (representative) and parliamentary. In both cases, the monarch has to share its power with the legislative body of the country, that is, with the parliament. However, if in the first case the executive power belongs to the king (emperor, sultan, tsar, prince or duke, etc.), then in the second the monarch is deprived of this privilege: the executive power belongs to the government, which, in turn, is accountable to parliament. By the way, the power of the monarch is limited legally: there is a decree according to which no orders of the reigning person can be effective until they are counted by this or that minister.
The power of the monarch in countries with a constitutional monarchical form of government
In a dualistic monarchy, ministers are appointed (shifted) by the monarch. They are responsible only to him. In parliamentary appointment of officials is also carried out by the ruling person, but members of the government are accountable not to her, but to parliament. From this it follows that in states where the form of government is parliamentary monarchy, the ruling persons have practically no real power. Any decision, including personal matters, for example, regarding marriage or, conversely, divorce, the monarch must agree with the legislature. As for the legal side, the final signing of laws, the appointment and dismissal of government officials and members of the government, the declaration-termination of wars, etc. - all require his signature and stamp. However, he without the consent of the parliament is not entitled to do what he believes is right. Consequently, a constitutional monarchy is a kind of state in which the monarch is not the actual ruler. He is just a symbol of his state. Nevertheless, a strong-willed monarch may well dictate his will to both the parliament and the government. After all, he is authorized to appoint ministers and other officials, and is also able to influence the country's foreign policy.
Constitutional monarchies of Europe
In European countries, before the others, there was a transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional one. For example, in Britain, this happened in the 17th century. Today, in eleven states of the Old World (Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Great Britain, etc.), the form of government is constitutional monarchy. This indicates that the peoples of these states did not want to radically change the political system in their countries, completely overthrow the royal power, however, submitting to the new realities, made a peaceful transition from one form of government to another.
Constitutional monarchies: list
1. United Kingdom.
7. New Guinea.
18. New Zealand.
25. Saint Kitts.
27. Solomon Islands.
28. St. Vincent.