Bonobo monkey - the smartest monkey in the world

Anonim

Specialists who study the life of primates, came to the consensus that the smartest monkey in the world is a bonobo (a kind of chimpanzee, it is also called a pygmy chimpanzee). This species is the closest to man of all known animals of our planet. Scientists joke that a bonobo is 99.4% human.

Features of the form

Unlike other varieties of chimpanzees, as well as varieties of other primates, the bonobo monkey has the largest number of behavioral traits inherent in humans. For example, American scientists managed to teach the miniature chimpanzee, who was called Kanzi, to understand about three thousand words. Moreover, he knew how to use more than 500 words using a keyboard with geometric signs.

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There were other experiments that led to the conclusion that the bonobos are the smartest monkey. This breed does not stand out in a separate species and belongs to the chimpanzee. Bonobo always, even while eating, actively communicate with each other, using a special sound system that is not yet deciphered. Their brains are much more developed than other monkeys.

The pygmy chimpanzee is capable of perceiving other sign systems. The captive animal, the experimenter allows you to remember 20-30 characters and their sound equivalent. Primate remembers various commands in this language and then, when uttering previously unheard commands, performs certain actions, for example: “take a chair out of the room”, “soap the ball”, etc. Well, who then will challenge the statement that the smartest monkey - bonobo.

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The branches of hominid and chimpanzees were divided about five and a half million years ago. This species developed more slowly than ordinary chimpanzees, and for this reason, these animals retained much more archaic features inherent in humans and chimpanzees. Moreover, the set of genes of this dwarf monkey coincides with human genes by 98%. Without pretreatment, blood bonobos can be transfused to humans. And blood, for example, the usual chimpanzee needs preliminary removal of antibodies.

External features

It is not known why this animal was called a dwarf - the bonobo monkey is not inferior to its ordinary relatives in size. Males weigh from 35 to 60 kilograms, but more often their weight is fixed in the region of 45 kilograms. Females, as expected, are more graceful. Their weight does not exceed 35 kilograms. The growth of an adult individual is about 115 centimeters.

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The bonobo monkey, the photo of which we have posted in this article, has a rather large head. Eye brows are clearly visible above the eyes, although they are poorly developed. The whole body is covered with black skin, except the lips. They are pink in this monkey, well stand out against a dark background. High forehead, ears small, wide nostrils. On the head there are long hair. In females, the mammary glands are more developed than in other species.

The bonabo monkey has a slender body with a thin neck and long legs. Animals make loud barking sounds.

Habitat

The bonabo monkey lives in the only place on our planet. It is located in the Congo Basin (Central Africa). This territory, about five hundred thousand square kilometers in size, is covered with dense tropical vegetation. Today, about fifty thousand representatives of this species live here.

Behavior

Bonobo prefer collective living. Their number reaches one hundred individuals (adults and young). Despite the smaller size, compared with males, females have a higher social status. This is due to the fact that the "ladies" are more united and organized than the representatives of the opposite sex. If the female came into conflict with the male, then other females immediately rush to her defense, and no one protects the male.

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During the day, dwarf chimpanzees spend time and “talk” in small groups, and when it comes to a night’s sleep, the family joins. As a rule, these monkeys spend the night in the nests that they build on the branches of trees. In comparison with other primates, there is not such a strict social hierarchy in their team.

Entertainment

All monkeys love to play. But bonobos approach this issue "professionally." They are especially creative. Cubs constantly make funny faces and play real pantomimes, even if there are no spectators nearby.

Observers describe how a bonobo was entertained: the monkey covered with a piece of a banana leaf or with its hands and began to rotate, to attack its congeners, or to jump over the bumps until it fell, losing balance. After a short rest, she continued her fascinating activity.

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Probably, the monkey bonobo has retained some of the features inherent in our ancient common ancestors, in a less modified form. Obviously, the reconstruction of the social relationships between our ancestors and their behavior will not be complete without taking into account the behavioral features that are inherent in both bonobos and chimpanzees.

Nutrition

Bonobo monkeys are omnivorous animals. The main part of their diet is fruit. In addition, they eat plants and invertebrates. There is a small part of animal food on their menu. They will cope with small antelopes, proteins, etc.

Japanese scientists, who have been observing the life of these animals for a long time, claim that cannibalism exists among these monkeys, in any case, they recorded one such episode. In 2008, adult monkeys ate a dead baby.

Breeding

The birth rate of this species is very low. Females give birth once every four to six years. Only one cub is born. Pregnancy lasts about two hundred and forty days. A caring mother feeds her baby for three years. Bonobo sexual maturity occurs only at the age of thirteen. Interestingly, throughout life, the cubs maintain a relationship with the mother. Under natural conditions, the monkey bonobo lives for about forty years. In captivity (in zoos) they live to be sixty years old. This is a very rare case when an animal in captivity lives longer than in its natural environment. And one more interesting feature - a bonobo never develops SIV - an immunodeficiency virus (monkey).

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Population

Today, scientists around the world are concerned about the fate of these unique animals. Active destruction of forests, instability in Central Africa does not contribute to the well-being of this species. Now the number of bonobos in tropical forests is rapidly decreasing. Unfortunately, the level of reproduction of this species is very small.

The smartest monkey in the world

The list of the most intelligent animals on our planet is unconditionally headed by great apes. But among them there are outstanding representatives who have such abilities that there is no shadow of doubt that they have an intelligence that is close to human.

In 2007, the world-famous most intelligent monkey died - chimpanzee Washoe. She was 42 years old. This was the first "representative" of the primates spoken by sign language. For full communication, this unusually clever monkey lacked only the larynx and vocal cords, which nature cheated on it.

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Interesting facts about bonobos

Research scientists have shown that the brain of miniature chimpanzees is significantly different from the brain of its ordinary relatives. It is larger and more developed. In this regard, these animals may experience a feeling of empathy, tenderness, anxiety. Bonobo - peaceful beings professing love. The absence of hostility and aggressiveness is a very rare, even, one might say, unique quality among animals.

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