Population of Tajikistan: dynamics, modern demographic situation, trends, ethnic composition, language groups, employment

Anonim

In 2015, the population of Tajikistan was 8.5 million. This figure has quadrupled in the last fifty years. The population of Tajikistan is 0.1 of the global population. Thus, every 1 person out of 999 is a citizen of this state.

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Population of the Republic of Tajikistan in dynamics

In 1951, 1.6 million people lived in the state. This is five times less than now. In the early 1960s, the population of Tajikistan for the first time exceeded two million. In 1970, there were 2.875 million people in the country, and in 1972, 3.063. The threshold of 3, 000, 000 was overcome in 1982. During this period, 4.089 million people lived in Tajikistan. In the following years, the population growth rate accelerated somewhat. Already in 1989, the threshold of 5 million was overcome. However, it should be noted that the largest population growth rate was recorded in 1963. Then he was 3.94%. The lowest population growth rate was in 1998 - 1.27%. In 1999, just over six million people lived in the country. Low population growth rates were recorded from 1995 to 2000th. Then the population began to grow faster. In 2007, 7.024 million already lived in Tajikistan. Six years later, the threshold of 8, 000, 000 people was overcome. In 2015, about 8.389 million people lived in Tajikistan.

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The current demographic situation

As of January 1, 2016, the population of Tajikistan is 8.577 million. This is 2.24% more than in the past. An estimated 8.769 million people will live in Tajikistan in early 2017. A positive natural increase is expected. The birth rate in 2016 exceeds mortality by 217.339 thousand people. According to experts, emigration will remain at the level of 2015. This means that because of it, the population of Tajikistan will decrease by 25045 people. In 2016, 729 babies were born per day. It's about thirty per hour. The population density of Tajikistan, according to data for December 2016, is 60.2 people per square kilometer. About 33.9% of people under 15 years old, and 3.4% - over 65. Most of the population belongs to the age group from 15 to 64. Life expectancy at birth is 66 years.

About 99.77% of the adult population are literate. For men, this figure is 99.83%, for women - 99.72%. For residents aged 15-24, the literacy rate is even higher. It is equal to 99.86%. At school 12 years study. However, they finish completely less than 90% of the population.

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Trends

The main ethnic group in the population of Tajikistan are ethnic Persians, who originated from the ancient East Iranian peoples of Central Asia. Uzbeks, Kyrgyz and Russians are also represented. However, they are in the minority. Until the beginning of the 20th century, residents used the following signs for self-identification: sedentary and geographical location of residence. Until the end of the 19th century, Tajiks and Uzbeks did not perceive each other as two different nationalities. The situation changed artificially after the formation of four Soviet republics in Central Asia in the 1920s.

The population of Tajikistan tends to grow. High levels of fertility and mortality are characteristic of developing countries, to which this state belongs. A distinctive feature is the low life expectancy.

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Ethnic composition

If we consider how many people in Tajikistan belong to the dominant group, then this is about 84.3%. About 13.8% of residents are Uzbeks. And only 2% - Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen or Arabs. The bulk of the population are Muslim. Among them, 85% are representatives of the Sunni trend.

Language groups

The official is Tajik. It can speak the majority of the population. The country also speaks several Persian dialects. Many speak Russian. It is widely used by educated people, as well as in business. There are Russian-language channels in the broadcasting network, and wealthy families often send their children to study in the Russian Federation. This state of affairs is connected with the Soviet past of Tajikistan. Ethnic minorities use their native languages ​​in everyday communication.

Employment

According to data for the second quarter of 2016, 2.249 million people are employed in Tajikistan. During the period from 2000 to 2016, the average was 1395.3 thousand. The maximum number of employees was recorded in 2015. Then 2.276 million people were employed. The lowest figure for the last ten years was recorded in 2000. In the first quarter of this year, only a million people officially worked. In Tajikistan, men retire at 63 years old, women at 58. The age limit has gradually increased since 2000. As of September 2016, 53.5 thousand people are actively looking for work. This is slightly more than the average for the period from 1994 to 2016. The unemployment rate is 2.3%, according to data for September 2016. The average for the period from 2010 to 2016 was 2.43%. The maximum unemployment rate was recorded in 2000 at 3.13%. The minimum - in December 2004.

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