The philosophy of war: the essence, definition, concept, history and modernity

Scientists say that one of the least developed themes of philosophy is war. In the majority of works devoted to this problem, the authors, as a rule, do not go beyond the moral evaluation of this phenomenon. The article will consider the history of studying the philosophy of war. Relevance of the topic Even the ancient philosophers talked about the fact that humanity most of its existence is in a state of military conflict


Maieutics is ... Maieutics in philosophy

The great philosopher Socrates invented a unique discussion method called maieutics. This is a very effective technique, which is used in our time. In fact, he is perhaps the only way to convince his opponent of the opposite. In this case, the interlocutor can be skillfully pushed into a dead end by his own statements


Small homeland is a significant image for the formation of patriotism

Nowadays, people are becoming more and more supporters of cosmopolitan views that were previously condemned. Nevertheless, now you can also notice a fairly clear division in the sphere of the worldview that concerns the origins. Different opinions For some, not only a large but also a small homeland is of great importance


Parables about happiness. Parable about female happiness

Any parable is a short story. The conclusion of it is some kind of moral maxim, which the author or narrator of the parable wants to convey happiness to the listener or reader. Basically, the source of these legends in the European tradition is the New Testament, in which it was this form of the report of wisdom to the prostitutes that the Savior chose


Freedom and responsibility of the individual. The problem of human freedom and responsibility

This topic is very relevant in our time. The right to freedom is interpreted as the ability of each individual to perform any desired actions at his own discretion and of his own will under the relevant legislation, without violating the rights and freedoms of other people. The problem of human freedom and responsibility For a start it is worth interpreting both these concepts


Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative and its role in ethics

In the era of the New Age, the three main philosophical trends (pantheism, rationalism and naturalism) tried differently to answer the question of what kind of moral being a person is. Descartes believed that the environment and the individual oppose each other. Helvetius and his followers, like Rousseau, wrote about the harmony of man with nature


Mythological worldview, its features, structure and specificity

The myth is the earliest type and form of consciousness and the surrounding world in it. The features of the mythological worldview consist in the fact that the myth itself is the earliest historical form of awareness of the surrounding reality by the individual. In the myth, the initial knowledge of a person, the norms of regulation of individual and social thinking and behavior, as well as artistic and aesthetic criteria, emotional design and evaluation criteria of human activity are intertwined and intricately interwoven


Eudemonism - what's this? Examples of eudemonism

"Eudemonism" is a concept whose meaning literally translates from Greek as "happiness, " "bliss, " or "prosperity." This ethical direction had the most numerous adherents in ancient times. Let us consider what constitutes eudemonism, examples of the opinions of individual philosophers


Hegel's philosophical quotes

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel is a philosopher from Germany, one of the founders of German philosophy in its classical manifestation. General data from the biography of Hegel The great thinker was born in the 18th century in the family of an official responsible for managing finances at the court of the duke


Alphonse is a difficult profession.

Who is gigolo? This is a man selling his temperament for money. Parasitism is always condemned by society, especially when it is characteristic of the stronger sex. Everyone is somehow accustomed to women of easy virtue, but the man in this role seems disgusting, although the nature of the relationship in both cases is basically the same


Dialectical method in philosophy

Dialectics in philosophy is a way of thinking in which things and phenomena are considered in their formation and development, in close relationship with each other, in the struggle and unity of opposites. In antiquity, the sense-perceptible world was represented as an eternal becoming and movement, in which opposites coexist and abide in unity


Bruno Giordano: philosophy in the Renaissance

Perhaps one of the most famous and bright in all senses thinkers of the Renaissance was Bruno Giordano, whose philosophy was distinguished by pantheism and inspired the scientists of the Enlightenment to develop these non-standard ideas. Short biography He was born in Italy, near Naples, in the small provincial town of Nola, for which he gave himself the nickname Nolanda and sometimes signed his works to them


Arthur Schopenhauer. Quotes about the path and human life

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), a native of Danzig (then Prussia, now Gdansk in Poland), world-famous philosopher and doctor of science (1813), carried through his whole life an internal conflict between calculus and philosophy. For many years he tried to win the recognition of the public, but all efforts were in vain - the first 2 volumes of the works almost completely went to waste paper


Tommaso Campanella, his life and work

Tommaso Campanella is an Italian poet, thinker and politician who spent almost half of his life in prison for free-thinking and rebellion. He was very educated and for all the time allotted to him, created many works on philosophy, astronomy, politics and medicine. In addition, he was the author of numerous madrigals, sonnets and other poetic works


What does practice as a criterion of truth include?

Philosophy is an abstract science. As a result, to the concept of "truth" it is particularly partial. The multiplicity of truth It is easy to determine whether the statement that sugar is over is true. Here is a sugar bowl, here is a cabinet in which sugar is stored. All that is required is just to take and see


Entelechy is life

Entelechy according to Aristotle is an internal force that potentially implies a goal as well as a final result. For example, thanks to this phenomenon a tree grows from a walnut. Metaphysics Entelechy in philosophy is a phenomenon that corresponds to the ideas of the Kabbalah, which speak of the content of the goal in the very idea of ​​creation. Th


The Age of Enlightenment - ideas that changed the world.

The Age of Enlightenment is the heyday of the intellectual life of mankind, the emergence of new ideas, a new philosophy, focused on the value of life and the personality of each person and the recognition of the human mind as the main value. According to the dictum of the great German philosopher I


The work of Osho "About men" - a storehouse of wisdom

Osho's book "On Men" presents us with an unusual portrait of the representative of the stronger sex with all its weaknesses. Many of the characteristics are strikingly accurate, and of course, they are not always positive. In his work, the guru describes us to a man at certain stages of development


Neo-Marxism is ... Main ideas, representatives, directions

Marxism and neo-Marxism are two interconnected philosophical movements that attract public attention in different parts of the world. It so happened that the events of the past century, when the USSR collapsed, when capitalism began to be restored in many powers that had previously rejected it, were accompanied by Marxism losing its credibility and relevance


Manichaeism is ... Description, history, canons and interesting facts

History is constantly confronted with various religious movements arising from Christian teachings, which in one way or another distorted it. The founders of such philosophical schools considered themselves to be enlightened messengers of God, who were given the right to own. One of these was Mani. He became the ancestor of the strongest at the time of the philosophical school of Manichaeism, which seized the minds of a large number of people, despite the somewhat fabulous and childish views on life


Skepticism in philosophy: concept, principles, history, representatives

Skepticism is a philosophy that, by its principles, is the opposite of dogmatism. Obviously, this direction of philosophical science was created in view of the fact that some ancient scholars had accumulated many complaints about the trends that already existed at that time. One of the first representatives of skepticism, Empyrik, explained in his philosophical work that in this direction, in essence, the basic tools of thinking are a comparison of mind data and sensory data, as well as opposing this data to each other


What is will? The concept of will. Russian will

Very often we hear from people that they can not commit one or another act, because they lack the strength of will. For example, start exercising every morning or stop eating large amounts of sweets. This requires a certain effort on the person. What is will? Is it inherent in every person? Is it possible to develop willpower


Quotes of Thomas Aquinas: Medieval Truths for the Modern World

Evaluating a life situation or making an important decision, almost any person finds the key in simple and understandable sentences, which would seem to be written specifically for the twenty-first century with all its commodity-money operations and interpersonal difficulties. And it is sometimes surprising to learn that simple wisdom came to the modern world from the distant feudal Middle Ages, where there were completely different concerns, customs and aspirations


Social philosophy

Social philosophy is one of the most important aspects of philosophical knowledge. This knowledge is aimed at understanding the processes and states of human activity in society. Being an integral component of philosophy as a whole, it has all the features characteristic of this science. At the same time, the area under consideration is endowed with certain features that distinguish its subject and object of study


Modern philosophy

Philosophy is a science that originated in the very depths of ages. It was important and relevant at all times. Naturally, philosophy still does not lose its popularity. And nowadays there are great thinkers involved in matters relating to being and the place of man in it. Modern philosophy has significantly changed, but it has not lost its meaning


Historical types of philosophy

As is known, in many respects precisely the historical development of society determines the picture of the world. Often this can explain the differences in the ideology of thinkers. In this article we will consider the main historical types of philosophy. Cosmocentrism began to form in the era of antiquity


Osho: the biography of the enlightened master

Osho, whose biography is known to many lovers of philosophy, is an enlightened master from India. All over the world he is known as Bagwana Sri Rajneesh. A year before his own death, he said that he would not use the “Bagwan Sri” prefix, as some associate it with God. The sannyasins (disciples) called him Osho. So


What can not buy for money? The question is definitely a philosophical ...

The saying that it is better to be healthy, rich and happy than poor, sick and unhappy, will seem ridiculous to someone. After all, it is clear to all without exception! However, the question: "What can not be bought for money?" tightly connected with this popular wisdom ... Money can not buy happiness


Life path and his choice

Life path is a special term in philosophy, denoting the history of personal development, as well as the process of its change and evolution from the birth of a person to his death. In many cases, this term is synonymous with the word "biography". The first person to formulate the concept of life, was Sh


Features and structure of philosophical knowledge (briefly)

In a global sense, philosophy is a concentrated knowledge of the world. but in its structure there is a separate area - philosophical knowledge, which is significantly different from the ordinary. The structure of philosophical knowledge, a brief description of which includes a list of the main sections of philosophy, is formed gradually, along with the process of specialization of understanding different areas of life


Wise sayings about friendship. Statements about female friendship

Friendship, fortunately, a common phenomenon. At least, there are rare people who openly admit that they have no friends and comrades. It is believed that the "lone wolf" is unhappy, it is difficult and sad for him, "and there is no one to give a hand" ... "You have no friends at all", - so they say to a person when they want to accuse him of a bad character


Idealism in philosophy is a spiritual beginning.

Idealism in philosophy is a current that claims that our spirit, subconsciousness and consciousness, thoughts, dreams, and all spiritual things are primary. The material aspect of our world is considered to be something derivative. In other words, spirit begets matter, and without thought there can be no object


Ambition What it is?

Usually, ambition is understood as purposefulness, phenomenal knowledge of one's own and other people's merits and demerits, ability to play on other people's interests. In this regard, an ambitious person can carry both a positive charge, achieving the goals set before him, and negative, associated with the neglect of the feelings and aspirations of other people


Al-Farabi: a biography. Oriental Philosophy Philosophy

Ancient Arab scholars, who left behind a great scientific and creative heritage, are honored in the modern world. Perhaps some of their views and concepts seem obsolete today, but at one time they directed people towards science and education. One of these great scientists was Al-Farabi. His biography originates in the city of Farab (the territory of modern Kazakhstan) in 872


Otto Weininger: biography, quotes. Otto Weininger, "Gender and Character": summary, reviews

Austrian philosopher, a Jew by birth, Otto Weininger was born in 1880, April 3 in the Austrian capital Vienna. His fate is tragic: at the age of 23, a graduate of a female university, a young psychologist and philosopher, became a victim of suicide. The main problem of the life of a twenty-three young man was his Jewry


What is the "thing in itself" in philosophy? "The thing in itself" according to Kant

What is “the thing in itself” (Ding an sich)? This term in philosophy means the existence of things in themselves, not in relation to their knowledge, that is, irrespective of how they are known. To understand what Kant was talking about, it is necessary to take into account that the concept of “things in themselves” has several meanings and includes two basic meanings. First


Russian philosophy of the 19-20th century and the place of the Silver Age in the culture of Russia

Russian philosophy of the 19-20th century (or rather, its very beginning) is a very significant phenomenon both in the context of culture and the history of Russia. No wonder this period is called the "Silver Age". Interestingly, the exceptional importance of this cultural turning point was not immediately realized by his contemporaries, and this name is of a late nature


Features and structure of philosophy

Studying philosophy, its features and subtleties, it is impossible to ignore its structure. Due to the fact that one of the main objectives of this science is to give people guidance for personal self-determination, it is very important to identify the areas of being, on the basis of which a person can define them for himself


What is the worldview. Its types and forms

As psychologists and sociologists have found out, it is the world view, its types and forms that plays a key role in our life. Our attitude to the environment, to the people with whom we have to communicate, to our own "I" depends on these factors. Worldview defines our principles, thoughts, corrects the system of feelings and impressions, affects associations and sympathies


Hegel's Philosophical System

Hegel is a famous German thinker who made a great contribution to philosophy. His works to this day are very popular. Hegel's philosophical system has its own distinctive characteristics. It was built on the basis of the rationalism of Descartes, the mysticism of Jacob Boehme, the elements of dialectics in the works of Diderot and many other teachings


The logical square, or the exception of the third

The logical square is a scheme that visually shows how true and false judgments interact with each other, when the broader one includes the narrower one. If a wider judgment is true, then the narrower judgment included in it is all the more true. For example: if all Greeks are slim, then the Greeks living in Athens are slim too


Errare humanum est, or the Path to truth lies through an error

Errare humanum est! The Latin aphorism, spoken by the great orator Marc Seneca the Elder, is known throughout the world and means that error is the path to truth. Why this aphorism remains relevant for centuries? We will try to answer this question. Accuracy is a property of law Humans tend to make mistakes


Life values

For each of us, life values ​​are a fundamental reference point in various activities. They contribute to personal growth, the creation of a comfortable life, the formation of creative thinking, etc. All these benefits are achieved by man thanks to the hierarchy of values ​​built by him, which determines which of the priorities is in the first place. This i


Truth and its criteria in the theory of knowledge

The core of the theory of knowledge has always been the problem of truth and its criteria. All philosophical schools and directions tried to formulate their own understanding of these questions. Aristotle was the thinker who gave the world a definition that has become a classic: truth is that with the help of which we understand whether our knowledge corresponds to the real state of affairs


Institute of High Communitarianism - what is it: a type of political and theoretical understanding of reality or a new global strategy?

The relevance of the theory of High Communitarianism is due to the need to create an alternative to the extreme forms of liberalism that produced the sad phenomenon of a “consumer society”. The ideal of “consumption without moral restraints”, which gained momentum in the 20th century, quickly crushed the West under itself and caused a natural demographic, ecological and economic crisis. At the


The humanism of the philosophy of Picot della Mirandola

Giovanni Picot della Mirandola was born in Florence on February 2, 1463. He is considered one of the great thinkers of the Renaissance. For humanism, Pico della Mirandola’s philosophy was called "divine." Contemporaries saw in him a reflection of the high aspirations of spiritual culture, and the approximate Pope pursued him for bold statements.


Epicurean - who is this? The philosophy of Epicurus and his followers

Do you know such a thing as an epicurean? This word has recently begun to sound more and more. And not always it is mentioned to the place. That is why it is appropriate to talk about the meaning and origin of this word in more detail. Epicurus and Epicureans In the III. BC e. in Greece, in the city of Athens, there lived a man named Epicurus


True - this is a multiple concept, because everyone has their own

Often the events in our lives do not take place according to the scenario in which we would like to. When everything goes against all our expectations, we, of course, remain disappointed. If these events are associated with a particular person, everything becomes even sadder. True, everyone has their own Situations that you predicted as simple and predictable suddenly happen completely wrong, all the moves are confused and nothing depends on you


Being in philosophy

Being is the broadest philosophical category, which is used to denote substantiality, as well as the integrity of the world. Being in philosophy originated in ancient Greece. The emergence of the doctrine of it coincided with the advent of philosophical knowledge, as well as with the transition to theoretical and logical thinking


Who are agnostics and how are they different from skeptics?

In the nineteenth century there lived an English scientist named Thomas Huxley. His worldview was controversial. On the one hand, he was a supporter of the theory of evolution, which in its essence is deeply materialistic, and so furious, that it earned the nickname “Darwin's Bulldog”. Arguing with Oxford Wilberforce, Bishop, he even noticed that he would prefer to be related to primate rather than to such empty chatterbox. On


Philosopher Rozanov: biography, scientific works, publications

The life path of the philosopher Vasily Vasilyevich Rozanov covers the period from 1856 to 1919. He became a famous literary critic, publicist. He left behind a kind of artistic heritage, allowing to dive into the era of the Silver Age. From a brief biography of Vasily Rozanov, one can learn that in the course of the years of his life he managed to create his own literary genre and began to imitate it in large numbers


Aristotle, ontology: description, essence and meaning. Ontology and logic of Aristotle

Philosophy is the result of a combination of empirical knowledge and that which goes beyond them, i.e. epistems. So Aristotle asserted. Ontology, presented to them for public discussion, has gained worldwide fame and was able to glorify his name through the ages. He is the parent of logic, the founder of dualism, the best student and fierce opponent of Plato


Dualism in philosophy as the concept of the duality of the world

The word "dualism" comes from the Latin "dual." This is a teaching containing the concept that there are two independent beginnings in the world. Their duality is expressed in physical (material) and spiritual incarnations. This concept in philosophy has been known since the time of Zarathrusta (628-551 BC), which divided good and evil into two different categories


The subjective idealism of Berkeley and Hume

Among the many philosophical systems that recognize the primacy of the spiritual principle in the world of material things, the teachings of J. Berkeley and D. Hume stand out somewhat, which can be briefly described as subjective idealism. The prerequisites for their conclusions were the works of medieval nominalist scholastics, as well as their successors - for example, D


Classical philosophy in the ancient period

Since ancient times, humanity seeks to know the world that surrounds them. Curiosity and striving for the unknown for all time led a person forward, forcing him to make great discoveries. Now in a world full of information and accumulated knowledge, a person solves much more complicated tasks than those that his ancestors faced in the distant past


Clever thought. Clever thoughts of great people. Clever thoughts about life

Aphorisms are short sayings that have a certain form, the deepest meaning and expressiveness. In a word, an aphorism is an apt and clever idea, in which a message reaches extreme concentration. From the Greek word "aphorism" (αφορισμός) is translated as "definition." This term was first used in the treatise of the great Greek scientist, the physician Hippocrates. Gradual


L. Feuerbach: anthropological materialism and the end of classical German philosophy

Many of us have heard the expression "the anthropological materialism of L. Feuerbach." The abstract on this topic is written by students not only of philosophical faculties, but even of non-humanitarian universities. But this thinker himself, like his spiritual discoveries, did not become a kind of "museum piece" or a boring question for the examiner


Life is unfair: quotes, reasoning

You can often find the statement that life is unfair. Someone believes in fate, someone calls it karma, and there are those to whom philosophical reflections are alien. They live a normal life and do not go deep into questions about the eternal. Some write poems, why life is unfair. This is a favorite story of soap operas and Indian films


Pragmatists are rationally minded people.

Pragmatists are people who do not recognize authority. They doubt everything that surrounds them, but at the same time their behavior is purely rational and depends on the actions of other people. At the same time, it cannot be said that they are reflexive and act thoughtlessly. On the contrary, to act pragmatically means to act rationally, even selfishly, on the basis of personal interests or the interests of the people around them


The existentialist is ... The philosophy of existentialism

The philosophy of existence occupies a special place in the fundamental development of the 20th century. It originated as an attempt to create something new, different from the developing views of modern man. It is necessary to recognize that practically none of the thinkers was a 100% existentialist


The qualities of a perfect woman through the eyes of men

Every woman wants to be desired and loved by everyone. Moreover, such a desire arises in deep childhood. A woman is not only a wife, beloved, mother. It is also a socially active person. Therefore, if a lady wants to become one that combines all these aspects, she should know the qualities of an ideal woman


Kant's critical philosophy

Immanuel Kant is a famous German thinker who made a huge contribution to the development of classical philosophy. His works are relevant to this day. Especially important is the critical philosophy of Kant. Consider its main characteristics and ideas. The revolutionary works of the thinker is that he proposed a fundamentally new philosophical approach


Aesthetics is a philosophy of beauty and expediency.

The very concept of aesthetics came to us from ancient Greece. When the ancient philosophers first thought about the various categories and definitions of human activity, they gave this name to reflections about the beautiful and the ugly, as well as the perception of this phenomenon by the senses. Later they began to consider that aesthetics is a special theory about what beauty is


Ancient greek philosophy

Modern world civilization is an indirect product of ancient Greek culture. Ancient Greek philosophy is its most important part. Based on the most common concept, we single out several stages through which the philosophy and culture of antiquity as a whole passed. Stage one. The origin of philosophy, its formation


What is personality? Understanding Sociological Terms

Many people can not distinguish between some basic sociological concepts that are close in meaning, but still different in meaning. Of course, in order to understand and be able to explain the processes occurring in society, it is necessary to know what an individual is, and what is a personality, how its formation takes place, and what influence the world around it has on it


Basic laws of dialectics

The basic laws of dialectics are what once changed people's views on the problem of development. There are three of them, but they can explain a lot. The fundamental laws of dialectics were substantiated by Immanuel Kant, a great thinker who made a significant contribution to philosophy. Let's do everything in order


Global problems of modernity philosophy is considered comprehensively

Despite the fact that humanity in the XXI century is developing by leaps and bounds and claims to master other planets, it still has unresolved global problems of our time. Philosophy considers them in conjunction with the processes occurring in the economy, politics and other areas of human activity


Jean-Jacques Rousseau: the main ideas. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: biography, quotes

Jean-Jacques Rousseau is one of those philosophers who will be causing discussion for a long time. Does he belong to the pleiad of thinkers of the Enlightenment, or, conversely, to her most implacable critics? Did he prepare the ground for the French Revolution, or did everything to prevent it from happening


Energy Qi, Tai Chi, Qigong

None of the existing religions in the world, not a single natural science will deny the fact of man’s connection with nature and even the dependence of human life on nature. According to the Chinese spiritual practice of the Tao, qi gives us life, supports us throughout our journey, and our death is nothing but the complete exhaustion of this energy in our body.


Jun-tzu ("Noble husband") in the teachings of Confucius

Every enlightened contemporary knows the name of the famous Chinese Confucius. And for good reason. The teachings of the ancient thinker took advantage of many Eastern countries to build state ideology. His thoughts greatly influenced the lives of many people. His books are in China on a par with Buddhism


Zarathustra - who is this? Friedrich Nietzsche's Philosophical Novel "Thus Spoke Zarathustra"

Culture often overlaps one another and not everyone understands what was before and what later. Those who are passionate about the works of Friedrich Nietzsche are not particularly aware of the prophet, whose name he used to write his story about Zarathustra. Real person Zarathustra, in spite of the meager amount of evidence of his existence, is considered a real person


Movement in philosophy is what? Movement and development in philosophy

One of the oldest philosophical categories is matter. The concept of it was initially very specific, then it developed, expanded, and eventually turned into a description of objective reality that we can feel. The most generalized definition of this category is identical to the being of the world, as philosophy understands it


Is feminization congenital or acquired?

Man is a creature, on the one hand, reasonable, on the other - endowed with a sufficient number of oddities of various kinds. It happens that everything in it is relatively harmonious and naturally developed. But among people there are those who have any deviations in the development of their body. Term So, sometimes the development of an organism goes not along the traditional path laid down by nature, but by certain winding paths, which sometimes lead to irreversible changes in the human essence


Is absolute truth available to us?

"I only know that, " the ancient Greek sage Socrates used to say, "that I do not know anything." Whether the philosopher was modest, or thereby he spoke another wisdom: our beliefs in the truth of something are always shaky, always relative and can collapse in one moment. Can we then say that absolute truth is total nonsense in our relative, changing world


20th century philosophy.

In the second half of the 19th century, there was a gradual departure from the classics and a smooth transition to non-classical philosophy, the period of changing patterns and principles of philosophical thinking began. The philosophy of the twentieth century characterized the classical trend as a kind of summary tendency or style of thinking, which is characteristic of approximately the three hundred year development of Western thought


Human activity is a special form of social activity.

Human activity is a peculiar form of interaction with the surrounding reality. This is a difficult category. Activity is the activity of a person, as a result of which the transformation of the environment of existence and the person himself occurs. This activity of individuals, proceeding either collectively or alone, alone with the outside world


Medieval philosophy briefly: problems, features, brief description, stages

The Middle Ages is almost a thousand-year period of time in the history of Europe. It takes its beginning from the collapse in the fifth century AD of the Roman Empire, captures feudalism and ends at the beginning of the fifteenth, when the Renaissance epoch comes. The main features of the philosophy of the Middle Ages Features of medieval philosophy briefly represent the Christian faith as a tool to unite all people, regardless of their financial situation, nationality, profession, or gender


Hegel's dialectic philosophy

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) - an outstanding German philosopher - was born in the city of Stuttgart in the family of an official. The formation of the worldview was influenced by the events and ideas of the Great French Revolution. Hegel began as a successor to the philosophy of Kant and Fichte, but soon, under the influence of Schelling, from the position of subjective idealism went over to the side of objective idealism


Zinovyeva Olga Mironovna: the fate of the wife of the great thinker

Zinovyeva Olga Mironovna - famous Russian public figure, philosopher, philanthropist and philanthropist. Today, her name is inseparably connected with the spiritual heritage of Alexander Alexandrovich Zinoviev. Amazingly, despite all the difficulties of life, she still tirelessly carries the ideas of her husband to the broad masses


What is Motherland? Meaning and origin of the word "motherland"

Is it true, what is Homeland for a modern person? Does the meaning of such a life-changing concept change over time? Let's figure it out. Origin of the word Needless to say, this concept is rooted in an unknown depth of the ages. The basis of it is the "genus". That is what was both strength and love for the ancient Russians


George Berkeley: philosophy, main ideas, biography

Among philosophers who profess empirical and idealistic views, one of the most famous is George Berkeley. His father was an Englishman, but George considered himself an Irishman, since it was there, in the south of Ireland, that he was born in 1685. From the age of fifteen, a young man began a period of study in college, with which he would be connected in one way or another a long period of his life (until 1724)


The subject and object of knowledge

What is the subject and object of knowledge? To know the answer to this question is necessary, even if you do not often come into contact with philosophy. The subject of knowledge is a cognizing, active person. By this definition can be meant both one person and a whole group of people. Who exactly to call the subject depends on each individual situation


Rene Descartes. Descartes Philosophy Dual

Human knowledge about the surrounding reality developed gradually over a long period of time. What is now perceived as a boring mediocrity, once looked in the eyes of contemporaries a radical breakthrough, the greatest discovery in the history of mankind. So once, in the distant Middle Ages, the philosophy of Descartes René’s dualism was perceived. S


Remembering the wise thoughts about life

Sometimes a simple phrase is enough to say the words in time to change not only the mood, but also the life of a person. The thoughts of the wise about life are truly priceless treasures. One day, a 50-year-old woman who lost her faith in people, love and her own destiny, told a young thirty-year-old colleague about her bitterness in her hearts


The emergence of philosophy

Although most people are not interested in philosophy as a science, it is a very important part of both individual and social life. The emergence of philosophy is a long process, so it is rather difficult to determine the origins of this science. After all, all known ancient scholars or wise men were in one way or another philosophers, but several hundred years ago this word was given a completely different meaning


Socrates' philosophy: brief and clear. Socrates: the basic ideas of philosophy

The most interesting and influential thinker of the 5th century BC. was Socrates. This thinker lived in ancient Greece. The life and philosophy of Socrates (it is very difficult to describe briefly, but we will try to highlight the key points) are inextricably linked, as you will see, after reading this article


José Ortega y Gasset. “What is philosophy?”: Analysis and meaning of the work

One of the most prominent representatives of the twentieth century Spanish thought is José Ortega y Gasset. “What is philosophy?” Is a work in which he threatens to analyze the very way in which a person can think of himself in the world. In his lectures, he made it clear that scientists should not be scornful of ordinary people. The


"The Philosophy of Money", G. Simmel: summary, main ideas of the work, attitude to money and a short biography of the author

The Philosophy of Money is the most famous work of the German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel, who is considered one of the key representatives of the so-called late philosophy of life (the irrationalistic trend). In his work, he closely examines the issues of monetary relations, the social function of money, as well as logical consciousness in all sorts of ways - from modern democracy to technology development


John Austin: speech act and common language philosophy

John Austin is a British philosopher, one of the important figures in what is called the philosophy of language. He was the founder of the concept, one of the first theories of pragmatists in the philosophy of language. This theory is called the "speech act". His original wording is related to his posthumous work How to Make Words Things


What is success?

At a certain point, each of us thinks about the meaning of our own life. Definitely, the goal of human existence is to achieve a state of happiness. But all this is somehow blurry, generalized and often very difficult. Better talk about success. What is success? This is when everything in life is good


The modes of material nature in the Hindu Samkhya philosophy. Sattva-guna. Rajo-guna. Tamo-guna

The life of a person has the potential, both for tying him to something, and for liberation. In order to navigate this dual nature of experience, the ancient school of Indian philosophy Samhya (“what summarizes”) divides reality into two categories: the knower (purusha) and the knowable (prakriti). Pu


The function epistemological in philosophy

Philosophy has many functions. One of the fundamental - epistemological. It is associated with the ability of man to think and comprehend the world. The function of knowledge in philosophy is, on the one hand, the algorithm itself of knowing the world around itself, and on the other, the ideas and conceptual theories explaining these mechanisms


Success Philosophy: Best Dream Quotes

What is a dream? It can be described as a passionate desire to possess something that is of great value to a person. Dream subdues all his life. It is made up of values ​​and opportunities, and is stimulated by imagination and motives. All great people without exception were dreamers. The whole philosophy consists of beautiful quotes about dreams, preserved over thousands of years of rational human activity. Ho


Why is a man born? - that is the question...

The first breath, and at the same time with it the first cry ... It is from this moment with the first breath of air we begin to BE. Birth Amazingly, this is the first and most important moment in life - the moment of transition from a state of peace, infinite peace and absolute security to the world is wonderful, but strange and unpredictable, full of deafening sounds and blinding light


The main functions of philosophy as a theoretical worldview

Most people who hear the word "philosophy" have the impression that this is something far from real life, some kind of boring reasoning. But there is another opinion that claims that philosophy is very useful, and it should serve the interests of society, the state, religion, nation, and so on


Marcuse Herbert: biography, major works, ideas and views

One of the brightest representatives of the famous school in Frankfurt, which appeared in 1930 on the basis of the Institute for Social Research, was Marcuse Herbert. He made a critical assessment of modern society and produced many works related to the study of the views of Hegel and Marx, with an attempt to understand the mind, analyze it, combine with politics and revolutionary movements


These different types of mosquitoes

Do you think all mosquitoes are gray, buzz and spoil the rest of a person? Not at all. There are more than 2500 species of these insects in the world. Not all types of mosquitoes drink human blood. Some of them prefer to "hunt" for horses and birds, others prefer the blood of frogs and lizards, there are those that feed only on the blood of dragonflies


The book of Elias Canetti "Mass and power": summary, analysis reviews

The whole adult life of the philosopher was filled with this book. Since he began living in England, Canetti has almost always worked on this book. Was it worth the effort? Maybe the light did not see the other works of the author? But according to the thinker himself, he did what he had to do. They were allegedly controlled by a certain force, the nature of which is difficult to understand


Globalization: Positive Implications of the Global Process

Today, world space is overflowing with talk of such a concept as globalization. The positive consequences of this process are difficult to overestimate. Nevertheless, this phenomenon is so all-encompassing that it can not cause only a definite reaction. The main results of globalization processes include the establishment of a new system of political and economic international relations


Eternal spiritual values ​​of man

It is said that the times are not the same anymore, the values ​​of the person become obsolete and acquire a different form. I can say with confidence that times are not a creator for good, truth. They never change, no matter what era we enter, it will always be nice to hear the truth, to know that you are loved sincerely, valued in friendship. Bu