Kant's categorical imperative is the moral law of a free man

The golden rule of ethics is to act in relation to our neighbors as we would like them to do towards us, often mistakenly identified with the postulate of Immanuel Kant. It is a mistake, because the German philosopher did not write about it at all. Kant's categorical imperative is something that expresses a moral law, an unconditional "must


Hannah Arendt: life and work

About what totalitarianism, the philosopher Hannah Arendt knew firsthand. Being of Jewish descent, she passed through the Nazi concentration camp, from where she was lucky to escape. Subsequently, she reached the United States and lived in this country until her death. Her works on phenomenology influenced such philosophers as Maurice Merlot-Ponty, Jürgen Habermas, Giorgio Agamben, Walter Benyamin and others.


Resisting Evil: Features, Definition and Philosophy

Unlimited generosity ... Is it possible? Someone will say no. But there are those who say yes, without doubting the truth of this quality. What is surprising? In the Gospel (Matthew 5:39) it is said directly: "Do not resist evil." This is the moral law of love, which has been repeatedly considered by thinkers from different eras


Helena Blavatsky: "Secret Doctrine". Was there a secret?

At the end of the twentieth century, our country experienced a series of crises, each of which can be safely called systemic. Economic upheavals, the collapse of a single state, a reassessment of historical facts, a change in attitudes towards religious life - this is just an incomplete list of events, like an avalanche of former Soviet people who have become accustomed to living, although modestly but stably


Tolerance - what is it? And what can it be?

Tolerance - what is it? What is behind this concept today, when it is so often used in modern rhetoric? Often, it is associated with the construction of multicultural societies and the associated ethnopolitical problems. Without minimizing the meaning of such questions, it should also be noted that this concept covers a wider range of meanings


Postpositivism is ... The concept, forms, features

The twentieth century is considered to be a turning point in the history of mankind. It became the period when there was a qualitative leap in the development of science, technology, economics and other industries that are a priority for man. Naturally, this could not but produce some changes in people's minds


Anthropocentrism is a concept in which Man is represented as the center of the universe.

Anthropocentrism is an idealistic teaching, according to which Man is considered the center of the universe. In addition, it is Man who is the target of all events taking place in the world. This philosophical view is based on a delusion, formulated by the Greek philosopher Protagoras and stating that "The Individual is the measure of all things


The meaning of human life. What is the meaning of human life? The problem of the meaning of human life

What is the meaning of human life? Many people at all times thought about this issue. For some, the problem of the meaning of a person’s life does not exist as such at all, someone sees the essence of being in money, someone in children, someone in work, etc. Naturally, over this issue and the great world of this world: writers, philosophers, psychologists.


The role of ideology in human life. The concept of worldview and its structure

The most important thing in a person’s life is how he perceives this world. Depending on how we relate to it, a lot is formed in our behavior and in attitude and in individual awareness of life. The topic of this article will be the problem of determining worldview. What does this concept mean, and what are its types?


What is truth. The concept of truth in philosophy.

Many people, regardless of their origin, education, religious affiliation and type of activity, evaluate certain judgments according to their degree of conformity with the truth. And, it would seem, get quite a coherent picture of the world. But, as soon as they begin to wonder about what truth is, everyone, as a rule, begins to get bogged down in the wilds of concepts and wallow in controversy


The law of unity and struggle of opposites - the essence of any dialectical process

Even Heraclitus said that everything in the world determines the law of the struggle of opposites. Any phenomenon or process indicates this. Acting simultaneously, opposites create a certain state of tension. He defines what is called the inner harmony of a thing. The Greek philosopher explains this thesis with an example about onions


Utopian ideas that shaped the world

Almost 500 years have passed since the publication of Thomas More's brilliant book Utopia, and its influence has affected and affects the entire world order, starting from the thinking of Mahatma Gandhi to the ideas of technological giants from Silicon Valley. What is the vitality of the unsurpassed utopian and his followers


The structure of philosophical knowledge and its value in the study of this discipline

Some young people consider philosophy to be a boring and monotonous subject, which is studied with great difficulty. In fact, this is absolutely not the case; sometimes people simply cannot understand this subject due to the complexity of perceiving certain metaphysical concepts. If one reveals one or another aspect correctly, then the structure of philosophical knowledge becomes understandable to practically everyone who is interested in it


Why do East and West have different thinking?

A few decades ago, scientists were inclined to reject the differences in the thinking of residents of the East and the West. However, the overwhelming amount of research has revealed a characteristic bias. Most of the subjects in the psychological tests were white wealthy and educated citizens, preaching the principles of democracy


Russian cosmism. Nikolai Fedorovich Fedorov: biography, writings

The name of the Russian philosopher Nikolai Fyodorov was hidden from the general public for a long time, but he was not forgotten, because his ideas inspired such eminent scientists as Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky, Alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky, Nikolai Aleksandrovich Naumov


Plato: biography and philosophy

The disciple of Socrates, the teacher of Aristotle - the ancient Greek thinker and philosopher Plato, whose biography is of interest to historians, stylists, writers, philosophers and politicians. This is an outstanding representative of humanity, who lived in the turbulent times of the crisis of the Greek polis, the intensification of the class struggle, when the era of Alexander the Great replaced the Hellenistic era


Pedagogical credo of the educator - postulates and implementation

Responsibility for young souls is one of the most serious in human life. What should be the pedagogical credo of the educator so that he can be trusted with the developing personality? The rights of the child - instead of school formalism and iron discipline - were already taken into account at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries


What does political philosophy study?

Political philosophy is a separate area of ​​intellectual research aimed at studying the characteristics of power and the state, as well as the duties and rights of its citizens. This science, like other regulatory theory, specializes in explaining values, highlighting the moral and desirable standards for each individual and system of government in the country as a whole. Po


Worldview is a world view.

Worldview is a way of orienting a person in the world around him. It includes the most common knowledge of man about the world in general and about its place in it. A worldview is a complex of ideas that a person needs in order to assert himself in order to organize his behavior, activities and communication


What is more important - to love or be loved? What does it mean to love?

There is nothing more beautiful than to love and know that this is mutual. Many couples live happily in marriage and enjoy their feelings. But why do some people have the question: "What is more important - to love or be loved?" Why should a person make such a choice? Is it possible to be happy in this situation


Enlightenment philosophy and its main characteristics

The era of the Enlightenment in Europe was formed under special historical conditions. These were the times of the domination of absolute monarchy in France, which was in crisis and the gap between economic development and the system of government, as well as the tightening of clericalism (the Nantes edict on religious tolerance was abolished)


Philo of Alexandria - 1st century Jewish philosopher

Philo of Alexandria (Judean) is a theologian and religious thinker who lived in Alexandria from about 25 BC. e. 50 year n. e. He was a representative of Jewish Hellenism, the center of which was then just in Alexandria. A great influence on the development of all theology. He is widely known as the creator of the Logos theory


Love: philosophy. Love in terms of the philosophy of Plato and Russian philosophy

People and epochs changed, and in each century love was understood differently. Philosophy is still trying to answer a difficult question: where does this wonderful feeling come from? Eros Love, in terms of the philosophy of Plato, is different. He divides Eros into 2 persons: high and low. The eros of the earth personifies the lower manifestation of human feelings


Principles of dialectics: structure and content

The rapid development of the natural sciences in the second half of the 19th century showed that the fundamental methodological foundations of scientific knowledge that existed before were no longer able to describe the general laws of the development of nature, the phenomena of being. In addition, accumulated problems of a social nature, requiring scientific explanation and interpretation


Han Xiang Zi: the immortal wisdom

In the blessed times, when the Tang dynasty ruled part of China, a boy was born who was prepared for a place in the pantheon of the immortals. His talents appeared very early, especially in the field of miracles, vague predictions and aphorisms. If you want to be like everyone else, you will be nobody He sought to be different from all others or not - is not known for certain


General characteristics of ancient philosophy

Ancient philosophy arose as a result of characteristic changes in the worldview of the Greeks. In essence, what is philosophy? Most likely, this is a view of a whole generation on the world and on history through the prism of the views of one scientist. Ancient philosophy gave the world great scientists: Herodotus, Aristotle, Heraclitus


What is vocation? My favourite profession

For some people, July is a month associated with carelessness, summer holidays and sometimes vacations, while yesterday's schoolchildren survived a not very pleasant, but perhaps the most important period of their life. Graduates are faced with the task of deciding what a vocation is and making a choice on which their whole future life depends on


What is dialectic? Principles and laws of dialectics

In modern science there are several theories that describe the work of various systems. And the most accurately describing the various changes that occur with the phenomena and objects of the surrounding world is the dialectic. In ancient Greece, this concept was understood as a dispute or a dialogue


Is technocracy an undeservedly condemned concept or the worst of development scenarios?

The philosophy of technology makes an increasing emphasis on the role of the technical intelligentsia in the model of today's world. In the middle of the last century, the concept of technocracy, which was a consequence of the staggering progress in science, gained popularity among specialists. Thorstein Veblen and his work What is technocracy


The basic properties of truth in philosophy

This problem is central to the system of philosophical knowledge. Hundreds of scientists have worked to uncover the basic properties of truth. The characters of philosophical theories are different: some of them are rooted in earlier teachings, others radically contradict each other. The classic definition of the truth of knowledge The concept of truth in everyday life may contain a different meaning, but in science it is understood, first of all, the relevance of judgment to objective reality


Spengler, "The Decline of Europe": a summary. Spengler, "Sunset Europe" by chapters

Oswald Spengler was an eminent German historian and philosopher, whose expertise and knowledge encompassed mathematics, the natural sciences, the theory of art and music. The main and most important work of Spengler is the two-volume book “The Decline of Europe”, his other works were not popular outside of Germany. Th


Apeiron is ... Meaning and interpretation of the term "apeiron"

Those who study philosophy have probably heard such a thing as “apeiron”. The meanings of words from philosophical science are not understood by everyone. What is it? What is the origin of the term, what does it mean? Definition Apeiron in philosophy is a concept that was introduced by Anaximander. It


Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans. Pythagoreanism in philosophy

"Pythagorean pants are equal in all directions" - without exaggeration, we can say that 97% of people are familiar with this expression. Approximately as many people know about the Pythagorean theorem. This is where most of the knowledge of the great thinker ends, and he was not only a mathematician, but also an outstanding philosopher


3 scientific theories that make us believe in the existence of a parallel reality

Is our universe really unique and unique? In the vast expanses of science fiction, and lately, a huge number of scientists there are many theories that suggest the existence of universes parallel to ours. What is parallel reality? From parallel realities that may intersect, or may not interact with each other, to universes forming parallel to ours, the idea that there are more than one worlds sounds more and more often not only on the pages of novels and on television screens, but and at scientific conferences and in collegial expert scientific publications


Superman is .... The concept, definition, creation, characteristics in philosophy, the legends of existence, reflected in films and literature

Superman is an image introduced into philosophy by the famous thinker Friedrich Nietzsche. It was first used in his work "Thus Spoke Zarathustra." With his help, the scientist designated a creature that by its power is capable of surpassing the modern man as the man himself once surpassed the monkey


The components of well-being are ... Family well-being. Material well-being

It is said that a person can create a feeling of complete peace and immense happiness in the soul only by himself. Since their appearance on Earth, people are looking for the answer to the question: “What is the meaning of life? How to become happy? "And this is natural. Satisfaction with one's fate is closely interconnected with the concept of happiness, the necessary conditions of which are the factors of well-being.


The content and forms of spiritual activity in the historical development of society

What is a person’s spiritual activity? This is a creative activity of people, which is directed not at changing the nature, the world around us, but at changing social subjects, that is, other people. The main feature that determines the content and forms of spiritual activity is the ideality of phenomena attributable to spiritual ones.


What are the types of knowledge?

By cognition, we mean creative activity that is focused on obtaining new reliable information and knowledge about the world around us. Types of knowledge are many and varied. In general, it is worth noting that at various times it existed in the following forms: scientific; mythological; philosophical; religious; ordinary; fiction


Wise and beautiful statements about a woman

A lot of poems and songs, novels and stories, and of course, aphorisms are devoted to the so-called "weak sex". The ascetic Indian yogis, Eastern sages and medieval monks allowed themselves to speak about a woman; Provencal poets and titans of the Renaissance admired her. She got “on the nuts” for windiness and love for jewelry, she was considered the inventor of evil, temptress and destroyer of the human race. Bu


The problem of truth in philosophy

The problem of truth in philosophy is central to the whole theory of knowledge. It is identified with the essence itself, is one of the most important ideological concepts, is in the same row with such key phenomena as Good, Evil, Justice, Beauty. The problem of truth in philosophy and science is quite complex


What is objective and subjective idealism, what are the differences?

Philosophy provides a rich ground for reflection. Anyway, we are all philosophers. After all, each of us at least once thought about the meaning of life and other issues of life. This science is an effective toolkit of mental activity. As you know, any kind of human activity is directly related to the activity of thought and spirit


Forms of being, their types and characteristics

The concept of being belongs to one of the backbone in philosophy. Different scientists in different historical periods interpreted this concept in their own way. However, they all agreed that it is being, forms of being, that are the characteristics, analyzing and comprehending which, a person finds answers to such fundamental questions as the creation and development of the surrounding world


The meaning of the word "butterfly". What does the word mean in different areas of life

The meaning of many words we perceive as the usual explanation for the phenomena around us. The butterfly is a popular insect that is found in many countries and religions. However, often people make tattoos depicting this colorful representative of the animal world. What is a butterfly, what does it symbolize, you need to know in order to treat this insect with respect in the future


Philosophy and religion - together or apart?

Why did we come to this earth, what is good and evil, what is God and what is His nature, what are life and death, what is the soul - all these two questions are answered by two close directions: philosophy and religion. They give a definition of spiritual values ​​- goodness, justice, truth, love and faith. Th


Cicero: quotes and biography

Mark Tullius Cicero, whose quotes are known to any student, and not only from the Faculty of History or Philology, has lived an interesting life. He wrote down his impressions about her. And they became so popular that the fame of his aphorisms not only thundered after the death of the philosopher, but did not decrease either in the Middle Ages or in our time


Nominalism in philosophy is ... Nominalism and realism in philosophy

Medieval philosophy, namely her beloved daughter — scholasticism — is often thought of as a groundless argument between people in cassocks about how many devils fit in the needle tip. This understanding came to us from the Renaissance. Then it was customary to show the past era in a blacker light than it actually was. Bu


Richard Avenarius: biography, research in the field of philosophy

Richard Avenarius is a German-Swiss positivist philosopher who taught in Zurich. He created an epistemological theory of knowledge, known as empirio-criticism, according to which the main task of philosophy is to develop a natural concept of the world based on pure experience. Traditionally, metaphysics divided the latter into two categories - external and internal


Historical types of worldview: concepts and interpretations

Worldview is a complex type of consciousness, which by its nature is an integrated entity and is present both at the level of individual consciousness and in the mass one. This is manifested in the fact that the concept of ideology, historical types of ideology include a variety of elements - information, value systems, knowledge, stereotypes and patterns of thinking and behavior, attitudes and beliefs, and much more


Optimization: transformations undertaken to improve education

A school is a social state institution whose main task is to form a certain system of knowledge, skills, and personality education in students in a certain spiritual, moral, political, and ideological key. Over the past decades, many reforms have been carried out in the education system, pursuing, by and large, positive goals


Idealism is, first and foremost, a philosophy.

Idealism is a philosophical teaching that assumes that only the spiritual aspects of our life are primary and central. According to this statement, the basis for being is exclusively consciousness, spiritual or mental. Yet the material that is in our world is nothing but the fruit of imagination or the result of the existence of a spiritual principle


Axiology in philosophy is a teaching that reveals the nature of life values

Most of all, a person is told about his values. And what are values, how do they differ from the meaning of life, goals, which of them are the most noble, which are modern, correspond to time? An entire science, quite young, part of philosophy, is devoted to all these questions concerning human values


Intentionality is what is it? The evolution of the concept and meaning

Even the philosophers of antiquity were interested in questions about what exactly motivates people in the commission of certain actions. Why does one person direct his attention and feelings to an object, and the other to the completely opposite. In those days, it was believed that this was simply the elemental subjective preference of the individual, caused by the structure of his psyche


Sergey Povarnin: the art of dispute - discussion or sport?

Sergey Povarnin’s most famous book is dedicated to the art of argument. Formal logic was needed at all times, even in a revolutionary era. The book "The Dispute. About the theory and practice of the dispute "was published in 1918. It is not difficult to imagine how many political and scientific discussions, everyday disputes and quarrels were heard and seen in his own time a remarkable Russian logician.


Max Scheler. Philosophical Anthropology of Max Scheler

Max Scheler was born and lived in an era of turbulent social changes in the world that resulted in revolution and war. His worldview was influenced by the teachings of many German thinkers, with whose ideas he met as a student. He himself became famous in connection with his philosophical anthropology, which he considered in the last years of his life


Mysteries of philosophy: worldview - what's this?

Worldview and world perception: few will be able to explain exactly what the difference between these two philosophical concepts. And they, by the way, are the invisible forces that daily control human life. And if you can somehow sort out the worldview based on your own logic, then the worldview raises a lot more questions


Sofia wants to have a baby? New Artificial Intelligence Statement

Everyone remembers how at the end of October Saudi Arabia gave citizenship to android, called Sophia? Now the situation is getting even stranger. In a recent interview with The Khaleej Times, Sofia told her that she wanted to have a family. Why Sofia wants to start a family “In the future, when I can have all my super powers, we will see how artificial intelligence will get right, ” said Sofia. Sh


Principles of universal evolutionism: the emergence of the concept and scope

The most common view of the origins of the theory of evolution is the theory of Charles Darwin, which he developed in relation to living nature, but it was not sufficiently clear about its applicability to man and human society. The fact is that even before the principles of universal evolutionism appeared in the theory of Darwin, Herbert Spencer in the article “The Development Hypothesis) proposed his theory of universal evolution, where the principles of universal evolutionism were formulated with reference to society.


The lumpen is a tool for bringing revolutionary ideas to life.

Despite the original meaning of this term, now the lumpen is not just a declassed element of society. This word is increasingly called representatives of the criminal world, as well as just vagrants and beggars. The lumpen-stratum played a decisive role in many revolutionary movements, since a person who has neither the past, nor specific goals in life, nor the state that he values, is very easily amenable to any agitation


Art or sport? What is controversy?

People constantly exchange opinions. This is how the world works. They say that he has his own. In order to bring together the boundaries of ideas on certain issues, it is necessary to explain exactly what is meant by this or that definition, concept, fact. After all, everyone sees something of their own


An intelligent person is a creator of spiritual wealth.

The special estate that is distinguished to date only in the countries of the former Soviet Union — the intelligentsia — is often mentioned with two shades of a relationship: respect and neglect. The second arises from the allegedly low viability, inability to adapt and "get settled". In fact, an intelligent person is a special value system. Ch


Russian philosophy of the 19th century: ideas, their role and significance

Russian philosophy of the 19th century represents the diversity of Russian political doctrines and ideological positions. The last century gave the world such thinkers as MA Bakunin, P.Ya. Chaadayev, I.V. Kireyevsky, F.M. Dostoevsky, A.S. Khomyakov, K.S. Aksakov, T.N. Granovsky, A.I. Herzen, L.N. Tolstoy, K


Scholastica is a special epoch in the history of philosophy.

One of the longest periods in the history of human thought is medieval philosophy. Patristics and scholasticism are among its most important stages. The first of these two terms refers to the works of the “Fathers of the Church”: from the early followers of the apostles to the thinkers of the 7th – 8th centuries. Cons


Hermeneutics is the art of interpreting texts.

Hermeneutics is the methodology and art of interpreting texts. This trend in philosophy appeared in the twentieth century. Hermeneutics is based on the theory of the interpretation of literary texts. Basic models 1. The position of the character is brought to the fore. In this model, the author’s task is to show the character from all sides.


Freedom and responsibility as a unity of contradictions

Freedom and responsibility - what is the meaning of these concepts? Freedom in itself is a fairly broad definition of both the capabilities of man and the philosophical canon, on which not a single treatise of Athenian sages is based. To be free is to have yourself exactly to the extent that the capabilities of a person allow it to do so


Do you know who a skeptic is?

Philosophical doctrines, common in the times of BC, were replete with various terms, common nouns, and so on. Some of them "survived" to the present and are often used in everyday life. For example, who is such a skeptic, the meaning of the word “positive” and other expressions even children know. Ho


Jacques Derrida: teachings, books, philosophy

Who is Jacques Derrida? What is he famous for? This is the French philosopher who initiated the creation of the International College of Philosophy in Paris. Derrida is a follower of the teachings of Nietzsche and Freud. His concept of deconstruction has much in common with the philosophy of logical analysis, although he categorically could not find contact with the philosophers of this direction


The most stupid death: funny and want to cry

What is just amazing, unimaginable and stupid is happening in our crazy world. Everyone strives to excel, become famous and become famous in any way. Someone becomes a famous actor, someone - a popular singer, and someone is remembered by the whole world for his own death. Here for these "distinguished" and created a special award - Darwin Prize or the title of "The most stupid death


How to find the meaning of life?

In life we ​​constantly have to acquire, find, lose and, of course, search for something. Many people live without thinking about the eternal questions of being. The reasons for this may be different: they are too busy with work and there is no time for reflection, life seems full and full, there is no desire to try to understand what is impossible to understand, and so on. Th


What is the noosphere? Vernadsky's teachings on the noosphere

The noosphere doctrine unites in itself a set of paradigms from, apparently, having a little general disciplines: philosophy, economy, geology. What is the uniqueness of this concept? The history of the term In 1927, the French scientist and mathematician Edouard Le Roy told the world about his noosphere what the noosphere is


What is humanism in the understanding of the sages of antiquity and the Renaissance philosophers

Humanism is a special type of philosophical outlook, which is based on the idea of ​​the highest value of a person; for a humanist philosopher, the human person is the center of the world, the measure of all things, the crown of God's creation. Humanism in philosophy begins to form in the era of antiquity, we meet its first definitions in the works of Aristotle and Democritus. Hu


The nature of philosophical problems. The specifics and structure of philosophical knowledge

Philosophy seeks to reveal the essence of things in their original form without a shadow of mysticism. It helps a person to find answers to those questions that are of particular importance to him. The nature of philosophical problems begins with the search for the meaning of the origin of life. Historically, the first forms of ideology are mythology and religion


Philosopher Friedrich Engels: biography and activities

Friedrich Engels, whose biography is of great interest to many researchers, was from a textile manufacturer who was rather successful in his time. His mother was intelligent, kind, had a good sense of humor, loved art and literature. Frederick had 8 sisters and brothers. Most of all he was attached to Mary


Thanatos is ...? Thanatos in Mythology, Art and Psychology

Thanatos is a god who personifies death in the mythology of ancient Greece. Most often depicted in the image of a young man in a black cloak with wings behind his back, holding a quenched torch in his hand, as a symbol of extinct life. Thanatos in art A huge part of the works of masters of ancient Greece was devoted to myths - these are sculptures, paintings, frescoes, and vessels


Is philosophy a science? Subject and main problems of philosophy

Man is distinguished from animals by many signs, both physical and mental. A dog or chimpanzee will never begin to think about the meaning of life or to seek to know themselves. Fauna exists at the level of instincts. Thinking is man's hobby. Every day we all ask ourselves a million questions and look for answers in the outside world


How does a donkey differ from a donkey? What is the difference between the two names?

How does a donkey differ from a donkey? Few people ask this question, however, having heard something like this, one thought will surely occur to everyone: “But still? Are there any differences? Or are they just two names for the same animal? ” How diverse and eloquent is the Russian language! Many will be able to express the same thought with completely different words or expressions. Ho


Rational knowledge

Consciousness is a conscious being or attitude of a person to his own being. Knowledge is an objective reality that exists in the mind of a person, reflecting or reproducing in its activity the natural and objective connections of the world. Cognition is the process of a person learning the world or himself


The main functions of philosophy (briefly)

Philosophy is a science that occupies a special place in the system of knowledge surrounding a person. It originated in the times of the Ancient World and accompanied the person on the path of his entire formation and development. During this huge period of time, many currents have arisen and disappeared, but each of the teachings was a system of relations with the reality surrounding us


"Philosophy of Christ" by Erasmus of Rotterdam: the main ideas

The teachings of Erasmus of Rotterdam is an example of the so-called trans-alpine humanism. Many believe that the term "Renaissance" can be attributed to Northern Europe only with a large degree of conventionality. In any case, this direction was not very similar to the Italian Renaissance


Diogenes of Sinop: the mad genius

This philosopher was called Socrates, who went mad. He was clever and keen on the language, subtly noticing all the shortcomings of the individual and society. Diogenes of Sinop, whose works reached us only in the form of retellings by later authors, is considered a mystery. He is at the same time a seeker of truth and a wise man, to whom it has opened, a skeptic and a critic, a unifying link


What did Aristotle say about the soul?

As a student of Plato, Aristotle spent twenty years at his Academy. However, the habit of thinking independently led to the fact that in the end the philosopher began to come to his own conclusions. They were markedly different from the theories of the teacher, but the truth was more valuable than personal affections, which gave rise to the famous saying


Different foundations of social stratification

A society is a most complex social organism, characterized by certain characteristics and possessing certain functions. At the same time, it is integral, on the one hand, and able to stratify into separate groups, on the other. One of the ways to divide society defines the concept of social stratification


Types of ideology. Philosophy as a worldview

In the most general sense, a worldview is a system of a person's ideas about the world, about his place in it. The specificity of this system determines the activity of the individual, forms the traditions and customs. Over the centuries, the history of the human world has undergone significant changes


The Paradoxes of Zeno of Elea

Zeno of Elea is a Greek logician and philosopher, who is mainly known for the paradoxes named for him. Not much is known about his life. Zeno's hometown is Eleia. Also in the writings of Plato mentioned the meeting of the philosopher with Socrates. Around 465 BC. e. Zeno wrote a book where he detailed all his ideas


Platonic Academy in Florence and its ideological leader

It was not an official legal institution and was not tied to a state or church. The Platonic Academy in Florence is a free community of free people, formed from different backgrounds, with different professions, who come from different places who are in love with Plato, Neo-Platonism, Filosofia Perennis


Sufi parables and philosophy

Sufi philosophy is a special trend in Islam, characterized by mysticism, asceticism and asceticism. The etymology of the concept "Sufism" is unclear: some scientists consider it to be derived from the word "wool" (from which the ascetic's shirt is sewn), others see the source as the word "bench" (on which Sufis sat)


Goals of knowledge. Means and methods of knowledge

Cognition as a philosophical category is studied by a special section of philosophy - gnoseology. Philosophers are interested in global problems of human existence, the existence of absolute truth and the ways of its search. The process of knowledge as a part of human mental activity is studied by academic psychology


Who are the agnostics and why they deny the possibility of knowing the world?

From the general characteristic of the non-classical theory of knowledge, you must remember the list of views on the philosophical aspect of the possibility of knowing the world. Optimism is a philosophical position, recognizing the knowledge of the world as a human being, skepticism is a philosophical position that raises doubts about the achievement of absolute knowledge


Schelling's philosophy briefly

The philosophy of Schelling, who developed and at the same time criticized the ideas of his predecessor Fichte, is a complete system consisting of three parts - the theoretical, practical and substantiation of theology and art. In the first of these, the thinker explores the problem of how to remove an object from a subject


Mysticism in philosophy: definition, representatives. Mysticism is ...

In European culture, mysticism appeared in the XIX century at the time of crisis and the loss of potential for further development. Interest to him has not faded to this day. It is believed that the origins of mysticism are Eastern religious and philosophical currents. However, this is not quite true


The essence of morality: the concept, structure, function and origin

The best person is a highly moral person. Act morally, and everything else will follow. Behave like a normal person. Inspirational words, however, do not carry specifics. How to comprehend this high moral? And if the "rest" is not applied? And who is this “normal”? We do not receive direct answers, which means we will have to look deeper into the “skull box” of today's patient. Put th


What are the thoughts of the wise about love?

There is no writer or poet in the world who would not dedicate the best lines of his works to the highest feeling on earth - love. From Schiller with his sacramental phrase, where love rules the world on a par with hunger, to E.Evtushenko with his “Spell”. The author of the book “Five Languages ​​of Love, ” Garry Chapman, states that this is the main word of every language. If the “Th


Philosophy: definition, origins

What is philosophy? It cannot be defined unequivocally because its understanding differed significantly in different historical epochs, and even in the same period in different schools and directions, the points of view can be very different, including mutually exclusive. Her subject area was also understood and is still understood in different ways


Neoplatonism - what is it? Philosophy of Neo-Platonism

Neoplatonism as a philosophy originated in late antiquity, entered medieval philosophy, the philosophy of the Renaissance, and influenced the philosophical minds of all subsequent centuries. Ancient philosophy of neo-platonism If we briefly characterize Neo-Platonism, then this is the revival of the ideas of Plato during the period of the Roman decline (3rd - 6th centuries)


Apologetics is ... Apologetics and Patristics

The period of medieval philosophy in Europe spans ten centuries (from V to XV). The era of the Middle Ages in philosophy is divided into three successive stages: it is apologetics, patristics, scholastics. The main feature of medieval philosophy was theocentrism, and it was based on biblical dogmas. According to many people, the era of the Middle Ages is associated with the "dark time" when European science almost stopped its development


General characteristics of Russian philosophy: specific features and stages of development

Philosophical thought in Russia is a unique phenomenon in the history of world science. Russian philosophers assimilated the knowledge accumulated by their predecessors throughout history, and adapted them to the realities of Russian life. Naturally, the general characteristic of Russian philosophy will have specific features that make it an original and unique phenomenon in the history of the development of philosophical knowledge


Philosophy methods

Philosophy is a discipline that studies the basic principles of knowledge, being of a person, reality, relations of the world and a person. Any subject and method of philosophy is unique in its own way. In principle, this whole science can be called unique and unusual. What is the subject of philosophy It refers to a certain range of issues studied by this discipline


Dreams of men - big and small

The eternal question for men is what a woman wants. He is so sharp that he was classified as philosophical. But we, women, are very interested to know: the dream of every man is what is it? What do our companions see in their dreams, what do they lack for complete happiness? Let's try to deal with these issues together


Consciousness and Identity

Consciousness and self-consciousness are terms widely used in a variety of sciences, in particular, in psychology, philosophy, and sociology. Their value is rather vague and depends on each specific case. Let's try to formulate what these terms mean. Consciousness is the quality of every rational person, which can be understood as isolation, opposing oneself to the outside world


Materialism is material doubt?

Materialism is a philosophical trend that negates the spiritual essence of things, relying primarily on the evolutionary component in the genesis of the external, in relation to man, world. Characteristic features of this approach is the complete denial of the existence of God and other higher substances


Vegans - who are they, what do they eat and how do they differ from vegetarians? Vegan Nutrition

According to statistics, more than a billion people on planet Earth do not eat meat. There are many reasons for this - ranging from physical, moral, social and ethical to spiritual and mystical. According to the well-established stereotype, such people are often referred to as vegetarians. However, is it right